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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 ____________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
____________________________________ 
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 000-51728
____________________________________ 
American Railcar Industries, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
 ____________________________________
North Dakota
 
43-1481791
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
100 Clark Street
St. Charles, Missouri 63301
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
Telephone (636) 940-6000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
____________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such a shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check One)
 
Large Accelerated Filer
¨
Accelerated Filer
ý
 
 
 
 
Non-Accelerated Filer
¨
Smaller Reporting Company
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging Growth Company
¨

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter was approximately $275 million, based on the closing sales price of $38.30 per share of such stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2017.
As of February 20, 2018, as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, there were 19,083,878 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the registrant outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for the registrant's 2018 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed within 120 days of the end of its fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 are incorporated into Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated.



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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Some of the statements contained in this report are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act), including statements regarding our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions. Such statements include, without limitation, statements regarding various estimates we have made in preparing our financial statements and our plans to address the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) directive released September 30, 2016 and subsequently revised and superseded on November 18, 2016 (FRA Directive) and the settlement agreement related thereto, the impact of the 2017 Tax Act on our business and financial statements, our plans to continue to transition the management of our lease fleet from ARL to in-house and terminate our contractual agreements with ARL, expected future trends relating to our industry, products and markets, the potential impact of regulatory developments, including developments related to the FRA Directive and the related settlement, anticipated customer demand for our products and services, trends relating to our shipments, leasing business, railcar services, revenues, profit margin, capacity, financial condition, and results of operations, trends related to railcar shipments for direct sale versus lease, our backlog and any implication that our backlog may be indicative of our future revenues, our strategic objectives and long-term strategies, our results of operations, financial condition and the sufficiency of our capital resources, our capital expenditure plans, short- and long-term liquidity needs, ability to service our current debt obligations and future financing plans, our Stock Repurchase Program, anticipated benefits regarding the growth of our leasing business, the mix of railcars in our lease fleet and our lease fleet financings, anticipated production schedules for our products and the anticipated production schedules of our joint ventures, our plans regarding future dividends and the anticipated performance and capital requirements of our joint ventures. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated. Investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made and are not guarantees of future performance. We undertake no obligations to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our business and prospects include without limitation:
our prospects in light of the cyclical nature of our business;
the health of and prospects for the overall railcar industry;
the risk of being unable to market or re-market railcars for sale or lease at favorable prices or on favorable terms or at all;
the highly competitive nature of the manufacturing, railcar leasing and railcar services industries;
the impact, costs and expenses of any warranty claims to which we may be subject now or in the future;
risks relating to our compliance with the FRA Directive and the settlement agreement related thereto, and any developments related to the FRA Directive and the settlement agreement related thereto;
the risks associated with ongoing compliance with transportation, environmental, health, safety, and regulatory laws and regulations, which may be subject to change;
risks relating to any other legal or regulatory developments;
our ability to recruit, retain and train qualified staff;
fluctuations in the costs of raw materials, including steel and railcar components, and delays in the delivery of such raw materials and components;
the variable purchase patterns of our railcar customers and the timing of completion, customer acceptance and shipment of orders, as well as the mix of railcars for lease versus direct sale;
risks related to the transition of executive officers;
our ability to manage overhead and variations in production rates;
the impact of any economic downturn, adverse market conditions or restricted credit markets;
risks relating to the ongoing transition of the management of our railcar leasing business from ARL to in-house following completion of the ARL Sale;
our reliance upon a small number of customers that represent a large percentage of our revenues and backlog;
fluctuations in commodity prices, including oil and gas;
fluctuations in the supply of components and raw materials we use in railcar manufacturing;
uncertainties regarding the 2017 Tax Act;
the ongoing risks related to our relationship with Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through Icahn Enterprises L.P. (IELP), and certain of his affiliates;
the impact, costs and expenses of any litigation to which we may be subject now or in the future;

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the risks associated with our current joint ventures and anticipated capital needs of, and production capabilities at our joint ventures;
the sufficiency of our liquidity and capital resources, including long-term capital needs to support the growth of our lease fleet;
the risks related to our and our subsidiaries' indebtedness and compliance with covenants contained in our and our subsidiaries' financing arrangements.
the impact of repurchases pursuant to our Stock Repurchase Program on our current liquidity and the ownership percentage of our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP, Mr. Carl Icahn;
the conversion of our railcar backlog into revenues equal to our reported estimated backlog value;
the risks and impact associated with any potential joint ventures, acquisitions, strategic opportunities, dispositions or new business endeavors;
the integration with other systems and ongoing management of our enterprise resource planning system; and
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. Our actual results could be different from the results described in or anticipated by our forward-looking statements due to the inherent uncertainty of estimates, forecasts and projections and may be materially better or worse than anticipated. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this report. We expressly disclaim any duty to provide updates to forward-looking statements, and the estimates and assumptions associated with them, after the date of this report, in order to reflect changes in circumstances or expectations or the occurrence of unanticipated events except to the extent required by applicable securities laws. All of the forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed above and under “Risk Factors” set forth in Part I Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as the risks and uncertainties discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. We caution you that these risks are not exhaustive. We operate in a continually changing business environment and new risks emerge from time to time.




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AMERICAN RAILCAR INDUSTRIES, INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
PAGE
PART I
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.
 
 
SIGNATURES



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AMERICAN RAILCAR INDUSTRIES, INC.
FORM 10-K
PART I
Item 1: Business
INTRODUCTION
American Railcar Industries, Inc. (ARI) is a prominent North American designer and manufacturer of hopper and tank railcars, which are currently the two largest markets within the railcar industry. We provide our railcar customers with integrated solutions through a comprehensive set of high quality products and related services offered by our three reportable segments: manufacturing, railcar leasing and railcar services. Manufacturing consists of railcar manufacturing and railcar and industrial component manufacturing. We use certain of these components in our own railcar manufacturing and sell certain of these products to third parties. Railcar leasing consists of railcars manufactured by us and leased to third parties under operating leases. Railcar services consist of railcar repair, engineering and field services. Our business model combines manufacturing, railcar leasing and railcar services and is designed to support the industry with complete railcar solutions over the full life cycle of the railcar. Financial information about our business segments for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 is set forth in Note 19 of our consolidated financial statements. Unless the context otherwise requires, references to “our company,” “the Company”, “we,” “us” and “our,” refer to us and our consolidated subsidiaries and our predecessors.
We were founded and incorporated in Missouri in 1988, reincorporated in Delaware in 2006 and reincorporated again in North Dakota in 2009. Since our formation, we have grown our business from being a small provider of railcar components and railcar maintenance services to an integrated provider of direct sale and leased railcars, railcar components and railcar maintenance and repair services. Our primary customers include shippers, leasing companies, industrial companies, and Class I railroads. In servicing this customer base, we believe our comprehensive railcar leasing and service offerings and our railcar components manufacturing business help us to further penetrate the general railcar manufacturing market. This breadth of product and service offerings provides us with opportunities to partner with our customers to improve our products and services and enhance the value of our offerings.
Our operations include eight manufacturing plants that fabricate and assemble raw materials, mainly steel, into railcars, railcar components and industrial components; eight railcar repair plants; and eleven mobile repair (mobile units) and mini repair shop (mini shop) locations. Our railcar services business includes railcar repair and maintenance, painting, lining, cleaning, inspections, engineering support and field services. In addition, at times we use our manufacturing facilities to perform certain repair projects. For example, we are currently using a portion of our tank railcar manufacturing facility to perform railcar repair work, as it offers a cost-effective way to perform repairs and retrofit services in a production line set-up. See Item 2 “Properties” for further discussion of our properties.
We are currently party to two joint ventures. Our Ohio Castings Company, LLC (Ohio Castings) joint venture has the capability to manufacture various railcar components for sale, through one of the joint venture partners, to third parties and the other joint venture partners. As discussed below, this joint venture is currently idled. Our Axis, LLC (Axis) joint venture manufactures and sells axles to its joint venture partners for use and distribution both domestically and internationally in traditional freight railcar markets and other railcar markets, such as transit and locomotive railcars.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
We design and manufacture special, customized and general-purpose railcars and a wide range of components, primarily for the North American railcar and industrial markets. We have several different railcar types in our broad spectrum of hopper and tank railcar families that service various commodities. Customers may select the size and configuration of the railcar to best suit their needs. By offering our customers both direct sale and railcar leasing opportunities, we continue to foster long-term relationships with key customers, helping them to meet their business and financial objectives. We also support the railcar industry by offering a variety of comprehensive railcar services, ranging from full to light repair, engineering and on-site repairs and maintenance through our various repair facilities, including mobile units and mini shops. See Note 19 of our consolidated financial statements for financial information by segment.
Manufacturing
We primarily manufacture two types of railcars, hopper and tank railcars, but have the ability to produce additional railcar types. We offer our customers the option to buy or lease railcars. We also manufacture components for railcar and industrial markets.

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Hopper railcars
We manufacture both general service and specialty carbon steel and stainless steel hopper railcars at our Paragould, Arkansas plant. All of our hopper railcars may be equipped with varying combinations of hatches, discharge outlets and protective coatings to provide our customers with a railcar designed to perform in precise operating environments. The flexible nature of our hopper railcar design allows it to be quickly modified to suit changing customer needs. This flexibility can continue to provide value after the initial purchase or lease because our railcars may be converted for reassignment to other services.
We have several different railcar types in our hopper family that target specific customers and specific commodities, including plastic pellets, industrial and food grade starches and flours, grain, corrosive chemicals, heavy ore minerals, clays, cement and sand. Our hopper railcars are specifically designed for shipping a variety of dry bulk products, from light-density products, such as plastic pellets, to high-density products, such as cement and sand. Depending upon customer requirements, they can operate in a gravity, positive pressure or vacuum pneumatic unloading environment. CenterFlow® and other lines of hopper railcars provide protection for a wide range of dry bulk products and enhance the associated loading, unloading and cleaning processes. Improvements include enhanced designs of the shape of the railcars, underframes, outlet mounting frames, loading hatches, discharge outlets and rotary-dump, which improve the cargo loading and unloading processes.
Tank railcars
We manufacture general service, pressurized, coiled, lined and insulated carbon steel and stainless steel tank railcars at our Marmaduke, Arkansas plant. Our tank railcars are designed to transport a variety of commodities, including chemicals, natural gas liquids, vegetable oil, corn syrup and other food products, ethanol and crude oil. Our pressure tank railcars transport products that require a pressurized state due to their liquid, semi-gaseous or gaseous nature, including chlorine, anhydrous ammonia, liquid propane and butane. Our pressure tank railcars feature a thicker, pressure-retaining inner shell that is separated from a jacketed outer shell by layers of insulation, thermal protection or both. Our pressure tank railcars are made from specific grades of normalized steel that are selected for toughness and ease of welding. Most of our tank railcars feature a sloped bottom tank that provides improved drainage. Many of our tank railcars feature coils that can be steam-heated to decrease cargo viscosity, which speeds unloading. We can alter the design of our tank railcars to address specific customer or regulatory requirements and we can also apply linings to tank railcars.
Other railcar types
We have the design capabilities, manufacturing flexibility and expertise to produce many other railcar types, as we have in the past and may produce in the future, as demand may dictate.
Component manufacturing
In addition to manufacturing railcars, we also manufacture custom and standard railcar components. Our products include discharge outlets for hopper railcars, tank railcar components and valves, tank heads, manway covers, wheel pair sets, underframes, outlet components and running boards for industrial and rail customers and hitches for the intermodal market. We use these components in our own railcar manufacturing and sell certain of these products to third parties.
We also manufacture aluminum and special alloy steel castings that we sell primarily to industrial customers. These products include castings for the trucking, construction, mining and oil and gas exploration markets, as well as finished, machined castings and other custom machined products.
Consulting and license agreements
In January 2013, we entered into a purchasing and engineering services agreement and license with ACF Industries, LLC (ACF), an affiliate of Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP. Under this agreement, we provide purchasing and engineering support to ACF in connection with ACF's manufacture and sale of certain tank railcars at its facility. Additionally, we provide certain intellectual property required to manufacture and sell such tank railcars. Effective December 31, 2017, ARI and ACF amended this agreement to, among other things, extend the termination date from December 31, 2017 to December 31, 2018, subject to certain early termination events.
Railcar Leasing
Customers may lease our hopper and tank railcars through various leasing options. We continue to transition the management of our leasing business in-house after our former affiliate, American Railcar Leasing LLC (ARL), was sold to an unaffiliated third party effective on June 1, 2017. Maintenance of leased railcars may be provided, in part, through our railcar repair and refurbishment facilities. The terms of our railcar leases generally range from 3 to 10 years and generally provide for fixed monthly rentals. As of December 31, 2017, we had 13,138 railcars in our lease fleet, with approximately 98% under lease.

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Railcar Services
Our railcar services segment focuses on railcar repair, engineering and field services. Our primary customers for services provided by this group are leasing companies and shippers of specialty hopper and tank railcars. Our railcar services segment provides us with insight into our customers' railcar needs, which we use to improve service and product offerings across all our business segments.
Repair services
This component of our business includes both our full service repair and refurbishment plants and our light service repair plants, which are strategically located to serve our customers. Our full service repair plants have full cleaning, interior and exterior coating, repair / rebuilding, non-destructive testing and engineering capabilities for a variety of railcar types. Our light repair plants provide a focused offering to specific areas, in addition to quicker throughput. Our tank railcar manufacturing facility provides us additional flexibility not only to produce railcars, but also to perform traditional repair and retrofit services in a production line set-up. We have the capacity to handle large reassignment projects, retrofit projects, heavy wreck repair, requalifications and other conversions to make, or keep, railcars compliant with regulations, as well as many other customer requirements. The capacity at these facilities also has aided us and our customers in complying with the requirements of the Federal Railroad Administration's RWD No. 2016-01 [Revised] (the Revised Directive) to inspect, test, and if necessary repair the 15% of subject tank railcars then in hazardous materials service with the highest mileage in each tank railcar owner’s fleet, as discussed below.
Engineering and field services
We offer a wide array of field services through our mobile units and mini shops. Working together with our field services network, our engineers are available to assist in quickly resolving railcar maintenance and regulatory compliance issues. Information learned in the field is used to educate other aspects of our business, allowing us to recognize and address maintenance and compliance issues that affect our customers' fleets.
Consulting and license agreements
In April 2015, we entered into a repair services and support agreement with ACF. Under this agreement, we provide certain sales and administrative and technical services, materials and purchasing support and engineering services to ACF to provide repair and retrofit services (Repair Services). Additionally, we provide a non-exclusive and non-assignable license of certain intellectual property related to the Repair Services for railcars. Subject to certain early termination events, this agreement terminates on December 31, 2020.
SALES AND MARKETING
We sell and market our products and services in North America. ARL marketed our railcars for sale or lease, subject to certain exceptions, and acted as our manager to lease railcars on our behalf for a fee until ARL's sale to an unaffiliated third party (the Buyer) as of June 1, 2017. ARL was previously an affiliate of Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP.
As previously disclosed, on December 16, 2016, the equity holders of ARL entered into a purchase agreement to sell their interests in ARL to the Buyer. The sale of ARL (the ARL Sale) was consummated on June 1, 2017. In anticipation of the sale of ARL to the Buyer, ARI and ARL entered into a railcar management transition agreement (the RMTA) to manage the transition, from ARL to ARI, of our railcar leasing business. See Note 18 of our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the RMTA. Following the ARL Sale, we began to market our railcars for sale or lease, and we continue to sell our component products and railcar services.
Certain of our component products are sold directly to customers via catalogs and the Internet through which our customers have access to our railcar and industrial components. Our marketing activities include commodity and industry based market research and analysis, advertising via electronic and print publications, participation in trade shows and industry forums and distribution of sales literature and marketing materials.
In 2017, our top customer, The Dow Chemical Company, accounted for approximately 15% of our consolidated revenues and no other customers accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenues. In 2017, sales to our top ten customers accounted for approximately 59.4% of our consolidated revenues.
See Note 19 of our consolidated financial statements for geographical information concerning the sales of our products and services, as well as other sales concentration information.

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BACKLOG
We define backlog as the number and estimated market value of new railcars that our customers have committed in writing to purchase or lease from us that have not been shipped. As of December 31, 2017, our total backlog was 1,940 railcars, of which 1,551 railcars with an estimated value of $132.8 million were orders for direct sale and 389 railcars with an estimated market value of $39.8 million were orders for railcars that will be subject to lease. Approximately 61% of the railcars in our backlog are expected to be delivered during 2018, 41% for direct sale and 20% for lease. All of our backlog as of December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016 related to railcars for non-affiliated customers. As of December 31, 2016, our total backlog was 3,813 railcars, of which 2,176 railcars with an estimated value of $198.3 million were orders for direct sale and 1,637 railcars with an estimated market value of $152.2 million were orders for railcars that will be subject to lease.
Railcars for Sale. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 80% of the total number of railcars in our backlog were expected to be railcars for direct sale. Estimated backlog value of railcars for direct sale reflects the total revenues expected as if such backlog were converted to actual revenues at the end of the particular period.
Railcars for Lease. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 20% of the total number of railcars in our backlog were expected to be added to our lease fleet, subject to firm orders. Estimated backlog value of railcars that will be subject to lease reflects the estimated market value of each railcar as if it had been sold to a third party. Actual revenues for railcars subject to lease are recognized per the terms of the lease and are not based on the estimated backlog value.
The following table shows our reported railcar backlog and estimated future revenue value attributable to such backlog at the end of the periods shown. The reported backlog includes railcars relating to purchase or lease obligations based upon an assumed mix.  
 
2017
 
2016
Railcar backlog at January 1
3,813

 
7,081

New railcars shipped
(4,292
)
 
(4,836
)
New railcar orders (1)
2,419

 
1,568

Railcar backlog at December 31
1,940

 
3,813

Estimated railcar backlog value at end of period (in thousands) (2)
$
172,580

 
$
350,501

 
(1)
We define new railcar orders as total orders net of any cancellations during the period.
(2)
Estimated backlog value reflects the total revenues expected to be attributable to the backlog reported at the end of the particular period as if such backlog were converted to actual revenues. Estimated backlog value reflects known price adjustments for material cost changes, but does not reflect a projection of any future material price adjustments that are generally provided for in our customer contracts. From time to time, based on market conditions, we also enter into orders where such changes in material costs are not passed on to customers.
We cannot guarantee that the actual revenue from these orders will equal our reported estimated backlog value or that our future revenue efforts will be successful. Customer orders may be subject to requests for delays in deliveries, inspection rights and other customary industry terms and conditions, which could prevent or delay railcars in our backlog from being shipped and converted into revenue. Further, especially during economic downturns or industry-specific downturns, some of our customers may attempt to cancel or modify their contracts even if not permitted to do so under the contract. Examples of such modifications include delivery deferral, substituting a used railcar in place of a new railcar, or replacing a railcar that was ordered for direct sale with a leased railcar, or vice versa. Historically, we have experienced little variation between the number of railcars ordered and the number of railcars actually shipped, though contract modifications or customer accommodations may impact the timing of conversion of our backlog into revenues and/or result in decreased revenues compared to our original estimates. We cannot guarantee that our reported railcar backlog will convert to revenue in any particular period, if at all.
SUPPLIERS AND MATERIALS
Our business depends on the adequate supply of numerous railcar components, including railcar wheels, brakes, axles, bearings, yokes, tank railcar heads, sideframes, bolsters and other heavy castings, and raw materials, such as steel and normalized steel plate, used in the production and maintenance of railcars. Due to our vertical integration efforts, including our involvement in joint ventures, we are currently able to produce axles, and tank railcar heads and assemble wheel sets, along with numerous other railcar components.
The cost of raw materials and railcar components represents a significant amount of the direct manufacturing costs of our railcar product lines. Our railcar manufacturing and leasing contracts generally contain provisions for price adjustments that track fluctuations in the prices of certain raw materials and railcar components, including carbon and stainless steel, so that

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increases in our manufacturing costs caused by increases in the prices of these raw materials and components are passed on to our customers. Conversely, if the price of those materials or components decreases, a discount is applied to reflect the decrease in cost. From time to time, based on market conditions, we also enter into orders where such changes in material costs are not passed on to customers.
In 2017, our top three suppliers accounted for approximately 39.0% of the total materials that we purchased and our top ten suppliers accounted for approximately 61.0% of the total materials that we purchased.
Steel
We use hot rolled steel coils, as-rolled steel plate and normalized steel plate in our manufacturing operations. We can acquire hot rolled steel coils and standard as-rolled steel plate from several suppliers. However, there are a limited number of qualified domestic suppliers of the form and size of as-rolled and normalized steel plate that we need for manufacturing tank railcars, and these suppliers are our only source of this product. Normalized steel plate is a special form of heat-treated steel that is stronger and is more resistant to puncture than as-rolled steel plate. Normalized steel plate is required by federal regulations to be used in tank railcars carrying certain types of hazardous cargo.
Castings
Heavy castings that we use in our railcar manufacturing primarily include bolsters and sideframes that are components of truck assemblies, upon which railcars are mounted, as well as couplers and yokes. Historically, we have obtained a significant portion of our castings requirements from our joint venture, Ohio Castings. Beginning in January 2017, Ohio Castings' production was idled by the joint venture partners based on a decline in industry demand. We expect that Ohio Castings will remain idle through at least the end of 2018, subject to re-evaluation based on changes in future demand expectations. During this idle period, we do not expect a significant impact to our operations or supply chain, and we expect to fulfill our castings requirements from third party vendors.
Axles
Axles, at times, have been a capacity constrained critical component of manufacturing railcars. Our joint venture, Axis, produces railcar axles and is our primary supplier of such axles.
COMPETITION
The North American railcar manufacturing industry has historically been extremely competitive. We compete primarily with Trinity Industries, Inc. (Trinity), The Greenbrier Companies, Inc. (Greenbrier), National Steel Car Limited, and FreightCar America, Inc. in the hopper railcar market and primarily with Trinity, Greenbrier and Union Tank Car Company in the tank railcar market. Competitors have expanded and may continue to expand their capabilities into our core railcar markets.
We also experience intense competition in our railcar leasing business from railcar manufacturers, leasing companies, banks and other financial institutions. Some of our railcar manufacturing competitors produce railcars for use in their own railcar leasing fleets, competing directly with our railcar leasing business and with other leasing companies. Some of this railcar leasing business competition also includes certain of our significant customers.
Our competition for the sale of railcar components includes our competitors in the railcar manufacturing market, as well as a concentrated group of companies whose primary business focus is the production of one or more specialty components. We compete with numerous companies in our railcar services businesses, ranging from companies with greater resources than we have to small, local companies.
In addition to price, competition in all of our markets is based on quality, reputation, reliability of delivery, proximity to products and services, customer service and other factors.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We believe that manufacturing expertise, the improvement of existing technology and the development of new products may be more important than patent protection in establishing and maintaining a competitive advantage. Nevertheless, we have obtained several patents and will continue to make efforts to obtain patents, when available, in connection with our product development and design activities.
ARI®, Pressureaide®, CenterFlow® and our railcar logo are our U.S. registered trademarks. We also have a common law trademark in the name American Railcar. In conjunction with the consummation of the ARL Sale, a Trademark License Agreement between us and ARL was terminated. Pursuant to the RMTA, we granted to ARL a license to use our trademarks

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“American Railcar” and the “diamond shape” of our logo. The RMTA provides for the wind-down of ARL's use of such trademarks. Each trademark, trade name or service mark of any other company appearing in this report belongs to its respective holder.
In connection with the ARL Sale and pursuant to the terms and conditions of the RMTA, ARL provides us an irrevocable, fully paid, non-transferable (except as set forth therein), royalty-free license to certain software and databases owned and used by ARL to manage leased railcars. We use this license to manage our railcar leasing business.
EMPLOYEES
As of December 31, 2017, we had 1,932 full-time employees in various locations throughout the United States and Canada, of which approximately 10.1% were party to domestic collective bargaining agreements at two of our repair facilities and at our Texas manufacturing facility.
REGULATION
The industries in which we operate are subject to extensive regulation by various governmental, regulatory and industry authorities and by federal, state, local and foreign authorities. The primary regulatory and industry authorities involved in the regulation of the railcar industry in the U.S. and Canada are the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the Association of American Railroads (AAR), U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) and Transport Canada (TC). The FRA administers and enforces U.S. Federal laws and regulations relating to railroad safety. These regulations govern equipment and safety compliance standards for railcars and other rail equipment used in interstate commerce. The AAR promulgates a wide variety of rules and regulations governing the safety and design of equipment, relationships among railroads with respect to railcars in interchange and other matters. The AAR also certifies railcar manufacturers and component manufacturers that provide equipment for use on railroads in North America. New products must generally undergo AAR testing and approval processes. In addition, our railcar and railcar component manufacturing facilities must be certified annually by the AAR, and products that we sell must meet AAR and FRA standards. We must comply with the rules of the USDOT and we are subject to oversight by TC that also requires compliance.
Future regulatory developments, such as our failure to achieve, maintain or renew required certifications, new regulations or changes to existing regulations, modified interpretations of existing regulations, enhanced regulatory investigation, stricter regulatory enforcement, or any determination that our processes or products are not in compliance with applicable regulations, could result in increased compliance and other costs, governmental or administrative fines, penalties, or proceedings, private litigation, product recalls, or plant shut-downs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
We are subject to comprehensive federal, state, local and international environmental laws and regulations relating to the release or discharge of materials into the environment, the management, use, processing, handling, storage, transport or disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, and other laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and the environment. These laws and regulations expose us to liability for the environmental condition of our current or formerly owned or operated facilities and negligent acts, and also may expose us to liability for the conduct of others or for our actions that complied with all applicable laws at the time these actions were taken. In addition, these laws may require significant expenditures to achieve compliance, and are frequently modified or revised to impose new obligations. Civil and criminal fines and penalties and other sanctions may be imposed for non-compliance with these environmental laws and regulations. Our operations that involve hazardous materials also raise potential risks of liability under common law.
Environmental operating permits are, or may be, required for our operations under these laws and regulations. These operating permits are subject to modification, renewal and revocation. We regularly monitor and review our operations, procedures and policies for compliance with permits, laws and regulations. Despite these compliance efforts, risk of environmental liability is inherent in the operation of our businesses, as it is with other companies engaged in similar businesses.
Certain real property we acquired from ACF in 1994 has been involved in investigation and remediation activities to address contamination. ACF is an affiliate of Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP. Substantially all of the issues identified with respect to these properties relate to the use of these properties prior to their transfer to us by ACF and for which ACF has retained liability for environmental contamination that may have existed at the time of transfer to us. ACF has also agreed to indemnify us for any cost that might be incurred with those existing issues. As of the date of this report, we do not believe we will incur material costs in connection with any activities relating to these properties, but we cannot assure that this will be the case. If ACF fails to honor its obligations to us, we could be responsible for the cost of any additional investigation or remediation activities relating to these properties that may be required.

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Future events, such as new environmental regulations or changes in or modified interpretations of existing laws and regulations or enforcement policies, or further investigation or evaluation of the potential health hazards of products or business activities, may give rise to additional compliance and other costs that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, we have historically conducted investigation and remediation activities at properties that we own to address past contamination. To date, such costs have not been material. Although we believe we have satisfactorily addressed all known material contamination through our remediation activities, there can be no assurance that these activities have addressed all past contamination. The discovery of past contamination or the release of hazardous substances into the environment at our current or formerly owned or operated facilities could require us in the future to incur investigative or remedial costs or other liabilities that could be material or that could interfere with the operation of our businesses.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Our principal executive offices are located at 100 Clark Street, St. Charles, Missouri, 63301, our telephone number is (636) 940–6000. We are a reporting company and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). You may find a copy of these materials at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at Room 1580, 100 F Street N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information on the operation of the public reference room. These materials may also be accessed through the SEC's website sec.gov. Copies of our annual, quarterly and current reports, Audit Committee Charter, Code of Business Conduct and Code of Ethics for Senior Financial Officers are available on our website americanrailcar.com or free of charge by contacting our Investor Relations Department at American Railcar Industries, Inc., 100 Clark Street, St. Charles, Missouri, 63301.
Item 1A: Risk Factors
The following risk factors should be considered carefully in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” above. Our actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed below and those discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or that are currently deemed immaterial may also adversely affect our business operations. If any of the following risks materialize, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We undertake no obligations to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
The highly cyclical nature of the railcar industry may result in lower revenues during economic downturns or due to other factors.
The North American railcar market has been, and we expect it to continue to be, highly cyclical, resulting in volatility in demand for our products and services. Many of our customers operate in cyclical markets, such as the energy, chemical, agricultural, food and construction industries, which are susceptible to macroeconomic downturns. Weakness in certain sectors of the U.S. economy may make it more difficult for us to sell or lease certain types of railcars. The cyclical nature of the railcar industry may result in lower revenues during economic or industry downturns due to decreased demand for both new and replacement railcars, railcar products or railcar services as well as lower demand for railcars on lease. Decreased demand could result in lower new railcar volumes for sale and lease, increased downtime, lower volumes of repair services, reduced sale prices and/or lease rates, fewer lease renewals and decreased cash flow.
The market for hopper and tank railcars currently continues to experience a downturn. We cannot assure you that hopper or tank railcar demand will maintain its current pace, that demand for any railcar types or railcar services will improve, or that our railcar backlog, orders, shipments, pricing, lease utilization, and/or lease rates will track industry-wide trends.
Our failure to obtain new orders could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and may be exacerbated to the extent that our backlog is depleted due to shipments of railcars outpacing new orders. Downturns in part or all of the railcar manufacturing industry may occur in the future, resulting in decreased demand for our products and services, reduced backlog and adjustments in production at our railcar facilities. For example, a change in environmental regulations, oil prices, competitive pricing, pipeline capacity and other factors could trigger a cyclical shift and could impact demand for railcars in the energy transportation industry.
Further, a change in our product mix due to cyclical shifts in demand could have an adverse effect on our profitability. We have several different railcar types in our hopper and tank railcar families that we manufacture and lease. In addition, we repair a variety of railcars. The demand for specific types of these railcars varies from time to time. These shifts in demand could affect

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our margins and could have an adverse effect on our profitability. In addition, if we fail to manage our overhead costs and variations in production rates, our business could suffer.
We may be unable to re-market railcars from expiring leases on favorable terms or maintain railcars on lease at satisfactory terms due to decreases in customer demand, oversupply of railcars in the market, or other changes in supply and demand, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The failure to enter into commercially favorable railcar leases, re-lease or sell railcars upon lease expiration and/or successfully manage existing leases could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our ability to re-lease or sell leased railcars profitably is dependent upon several factors, including the cost of and demand for leases or ownership of newer or specific use models, the availability in the market of other used or new railcars, and changes in applicable regulations that may impact continued use of older railcars. In addition, low demand for certain types of railcars in our fleet may make it more difficult to lease those railcars to new customers if they are returned at the end of their existing leases or following a customer default.
A downturn in the industries in which our lessees operate or the economy in general and decreased demand for railcars could also increase our exposure to re-marketing risk because lessees may demand reduced lease prices or shorter lease terms, which requires us to re-market leased railcars more frequently. Railcars that are returned by our customers often must undergo maintenance and service work before being leased to new customers, causing a delay in our ability to re-market such railcars and sometimes requiring us to invest capital to prepare railcars for sale or re-lease. Furthermore, the resale market for leased railcars has a limited number of potential buyers. Our inability to re-lease or sell leased railcars on favorable terms could result in lower lease rates, lower lease utilization percentages, reduced revenues, and a decline in the value of our lease fleet.
We operate in highly competitive industries and we may be unable to compete successfully, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face intense competition in all geographic markets and in each area of our business. In our railcar manufacturing business we have five primary competitors. Any of these competitors may, from time to time, have greater resources than we do. Our current competitors have increased and may continue to increase their capacity in, or new competitors may enter into, the railcar markets in which we compete. Strong competition within the industry has led to pricing pressures and could limit our ability to maintain or increase prices or obtain better margins on our railcars for both direct sale and lease. Competition may also limit our ability to re-lease railcars if our competitors provide our customers lower rates or other benefits. If we produce any type of railcars other than what we currently produce, we will be competing with other manufacturers that may have more experience with that railcar type. Further, new competitors, or alliances among existing competitors, may emerge in the railcar or industrial components industries and rapidly gain market share. Customer selection of railcars for purchase or for lease may be driven by technological or price factors, and our competitors may provide or be able to provide more technologically advanced railcars or more attractive pricing and/or lease rates than we can provide. Such competitive factors may adversely affect our sales, utilization and/or lease rates, and consequently our revenues.
We also have intense competition in our railcar leasing business from railcar manufacturers, leasing companies, banks and other financial institutions. Some of this competition includes certain of our significant customers. Some of our railcar manufacturing competitors also produce railcars for use in their own railcar leasing fleets, competing directly with our railcar leasing business and with leasing companies. In connection with the re-leasing of railcars, we may encounter competition from, among other things, other railcars managed by competitor railcar leasing companies.
We compete with numerous companies in our railcar services business, ranging from companies with greater resources than we have to small, local companies. In addition, new competitors, or alliances among existing competitors, may emerge, thereby intensifying the existing competition for our railcar services business.
Technological innovation by any of our existing competitors, or new competitors entering any of the markets in which we do business, could put us at a competitive disadvantage and could cause us to lose market share. Increased competition for our manufacturing, railcar leasing or railcar services businesses could result in price reductions, reduced margins and loss of market share, which could materially adversely affect our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our manufacturer's warranties expose us to potentially significant claims and our business could be harmed if our products contain undetected defects or do not meet applicable specifications.
We may be subject to significant warranty claims relating to workmanship and materials involving our railcar or component product designs. Such claims may include multiple claims based on one defect repeated throughout our mass production process or claims for which the cost of repairing the defective component is highly disproportionate to the original cost of the part. These types of warranty claims could result in costly product recalls, significant repair costs and damage to our reputation,

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which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Unresolved warranty claims could result in users of our products bringing legal actions against us.
Further, if our railcars or component products are defectively designed or manufactured, are subject to recall for performance or safety-related issues, contain defective components or are misused, we may become subject to costly litigation by our customers or others who may claim to be harmed by our products. Product liability claims could divert management's attention from our business, be expensive to defend and/or settle and result in sizable damage awards against us.
We may incur significant costs, loss to reputation and further regulatory action relating to the FRA's Revised Directive, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to access capital.
On September 30, 2016, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) issued Railworthiness Directive (RWD) No. 2016-01 (the Original Directive). The Original Directive addressed, among other things, certain welding practices in one weld area in specified DOT 111 tank railcars manufactured between 2009 and 2015 by ARI and ACF Industries, LLC (ACF). ACF is an affiliate of Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP. We met and corresponded with the FRA following the issuance of the Original Directive to express our concerns with the Original Directive and its impact on us, as well as the industry as a whole.
On November 18, 2016 (the Issuance Date), the FRA issued RWD No. 2016-01 [Revised] (the Revised Directive). The Revised Directive changed and superseded the Original Directive in several ways.
The Revised Directive required owners to identify their subject tank railcars and then from that population identify the 15% of subject tank railcars then in hazardous materials service with the highest mileage in each tank car owner’s fleet. Visual inspection of each of the subject tank railcars is required by the car operator prior to putting any railcar into service. Owners were required to ensure appropriate inspection, testing and repairs, if needed, within twelve months of the Issuance Date for the 15% of their subject tank railcars identified to be in hazardous materials service with the highest mileage. The FRA reserved the right to impose additional test and inspection requirements for the remaining tank railcars subject to the Revised Directive.
Although the Revised Directive addressed some of the Company’s concerns and clarified certain requirements of the Original Directive, ARI identified significant issues with the Revised Directive. As a result, in December 2016, ARI sought judicial review of and relief from the Revised Directive by filing a petition for review against the FRA in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
On August 17, 2017, the Company entered into a settlement agreement with the FRA, which covered the subject railcars owned by ARI and certain of its affiliates. This settlement agreement, among other things, extended the deadline for ARI to complete the inspection, testing and repairs, if needed, for the 15% identified railcars to December 31, 2017.  Adding clarity regarding certain unknown requirements referenced in the Revised Directive, under the settlement agreement, ARI is required to inspect, test, and if necessary repair the remaining 85% subject tank railcars at the next tank railcar qualification, scheduled routine or regular maintenance, shopping or repair event, but no later than December, 31, 2025. However, the agreement permits ARI to: (i) if the FRA does not impose a similar requirement by July 31, 2018 on other owners’ railcars subject to the Revised Directive, suspend compliance with this requirement until such time as the FRA imposes requirements on all 85% railcars subject to the Revised Directive, and (ii) elect to be governed by any different requirements later imposed by the FRA on other owners’ railcars subject to the Revised Directive. In addition, the settlement agreement also provides that railcars owned by ARI are no longer required to have a surface inspection performed when the railcars are being inspected pursuant to the Revised Directive. Finally, as part of the settlement agreement, ARI dismissed its lawsuit against the FRA.
We inspected, tested, and if necessary, repaired all of our 15% identified railcars as required pursuant to the settlement agreement prior to December 31, 2017.
Owners, including the Company, and lessees of the subject railcars will likely incur costs associated with compliance with the Revised Directive, including but not limited to, costs of inspection, cleaning and repair, if necessary, as well as freight costs for transporting covered railcars to and from repair facilities. We, and other lessors of subject railcars, may also experience loss of revenue during periods of rent abatement, if applicable, as a result of railcars being out of service due to compliance with the Revised Directive.
In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, as of December 31, 2017, our loss contingency of $8.8 million covers our probable and estimable liabilities with respect to our response to the Revised Directive, taking into account then available information and our contractual obligations in our capacity as both a manufacturer and owner of railcars subject to the Revised Directive.

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It is reasonably possible that a loss exists in excess of the amount accrued by the Company. However, the amount of potential costs and expenses expected to be incurred for compliance with the Revised Directive in excess of the loss contingency of $8.8 million cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. We cannot assure you that the amount of our loss contingency accrual is adequate to cover our actual costs and losses. Such costs may be substantial and may not be adequately covered by insurance, if at all, and could include costs relating to, among others:
applicable warranties included in sale and leasing arrangements;
implementing changes to our manufacturing staff or processes; and
claims, litigation, settlements and/or regulatory proceedings.
Complying with the Revised Directive and the settlement agreement could disrupt our operations or restrict our ability to expand our lease fleet. Failure to successfully manage our compliance with the Revised Directive and the settlement agreement and assist other railcar owners with their compliance efforts could cause delays or cancellations of orders, lost revenue, harm to our reputation, deterioration of business and customer relationships, including with our affiliates, and result in an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any material loss of revenue due to rent abatement, or otherwise, could adversely affect our ability to comply with covenants in our debt facilities. We cannot assure you that costs incurred to comply with any regulations, including the Revised Directive, will not be material to our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Under the Revised Directive, the FRA also reserved the right to seek civil penalties or to take any other appropriate enforcement action for violations of the Federal Hazardous Materials Regulations that have occurred. To the extent we become subject to any such civil penalties and/or enforcement actions, it could result in substantial costs and could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our failure to comply with laws and regulations imposed by federal, state, local and foreign agencies could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to access capital.
The industries in which we operate are subject to extensive regulation by governmental, regulatory and industry authorities and by federal, state, local and foreign agencies. The risks of substantial costs and liabilities related to compliance with these laws and regulations are an inherent part of our business. Despite our intention to comply with these laws and regulations, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so at all times and compliance may prove to be more costly and limiting than we currently anticipate and compliance requirements could increase in future years. These laws and regulations are complex, change frequently and may become more stringent over time, which could impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to access capital. If we fail to comply with the requirements and regulations of these agencies that impact our manufacturing, other processes and reporting requirements, we may face sanctions and penalties that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to access capital.
We may be subject to increased regulatory scrutiny, whether due to our ongoing compliance with the Revised Directive and the settlement agreement related thereto, or otherwise, which could result in increased costs or have a material adverse effect on our operations. Our railcar and railcar component manufacturing facilities must be certified annually by the Association of American Railroads (AAR), and products that we sell must meet AAR and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) standards. Future regulatory developments, such as our failure to achieve, maintain or renew required certifications, new regulations or changes to existing regulations, modified interpretations of existing regulations, enhanced regulatory investigation, stricter regulatory enforcement, or any determination that our processes or products are not in compliance with applicable regulations, could result in increased compliance and other costs, governmental or administrative fines, penalties and proceedings, private litigation, product recalls, or plant shut-downs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business is subject to various laws, rules and regulations and changes in legal and regulatory requirements applicable to us or the industries in which we operate may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business is subject to various laws, rules and regulations administered by authorities in jurisdictions in which we do business. In North America, our railcar fleet and manufacturing and repair operations are subject to safety, operations, maintenance and mechanical standards, rules and regulations enforced by various federal and state agencies and industry organizations, including the U.S. Department of Transportation, the FRA, Transport Canada, and the AAR. State and provincial agencies regulate some health and safety matters related to rail operations not otherwise preempted by federal law. Our business and railcar fleet may be adversely impacted by new rules and regulations or changes to existing rules or regulations, which could require additional maintenance or substantial modification or refurbishment of our railcars or could make certain types of railcars inoperable or obsolete or require them to be phased out prior to the end of their useful lives.

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Derailments in North America of trains transporting crude oil have caused various U.S. and Canadian regulatory agencies, industry organizations, as well as Class I Railroads and community governments, to focus attention on transportation by rail of flammable materials. Recent regulations related to rail transport of certain flammable liquids imposed by Canadian and United States regulators require, among other things, a new tank railcar design standard, a phase out of older DOT-111 railcars that are not retrofitted, and a classification and testing program for unrefined petroleum based products, including crude oil. In addition, railroads and other organizations may impose requirements for railcars that are more stringent than, or in addition to, any governmental regulations that may be adopted. For example, additional laws and regulations have been proposed or may be adopted that may have a significant impact on railroad operations, including the implementation of “positive train control” (PTC) requirements. PTC is a collision avoidance technology intended to override engineer controlled locomotives and stop certain types of train accidents.
We are unable to predict what impact these or other regulatory changes may have, if any, on our business or the industry as a whole. These regulations and the industry’s responsiveness in complying with these regulations may materially impact the rail industry as a whole; railroad operations; older and newer railcars that meet or exceed currently mandated standards; future railcar specifications; and the capability of the North American railcar manufacturing, repair and maintenance infrastructure to implement mandated retrofit configurations, repair or new construction. As a result of such regulations, certain of our railcars could be deemed unfit for further commercial use (which would diminish or eliminate future revenue generated from leased railcars) and/or require retrofits, repairs or modifications. The costs associated with any required retrofits, repairs or modifications could be substantial. While certain regulatory changes could result in increased demand for refurbishment, repairs and/or new railcar manufacturing activity, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected if we are unable to adapt our business to changing regulations or railroad standards, source critical components and raw materials such as steel in a timely manner and at reasonable cost, or at all, and/or take advantage of any increase in demand for our products and services. We cannot assure that costs incurred to comply with any new standards and regulations will not be material to our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Regulatory changes related to tank railcars in North America may impact future new railcar production rates and orders from our customers, as well as retrofit, repair and maintenance work to existing railcars. In response to current regulations, we invested capital to further expand our manufacturing flexibility and repair capacity to address the needs of the industry. We cannot assure you that any increased manufacturing flexibility or repair capacity will be sufficient to meet the demands of the industry. Similarly, we cannot assure you of the impact of the regulatory changes affecting the North American railcar industry or our business.
If we face labor shortages or increased labor costs, our growth and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We depend on skilled labor in our manufacturing and other businesses. Due to the competitive nature of the labor markets in which we operate and the cyclical nature of the railcar industry, the resulting employment cycle increases our risk of not being able to recruit, train, and retain the staff we require, particularly when the economy expands, production rates are high or competition for such skilled labor increases, especially in periods with low unemployment rates in areas where we seek to recruit employees. Our costs to recruit, train and retain necessary, qualified staff may exceed our forecasts. Our inability to recruit, train, and retain adequate numbers of qualified staff on a timely basis could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The cost of raw materials and components that we use in our manufacturing operations, particularly steel, is subject to escalation and surcharges and could increase. Any increase in these costs or delivery delays of these raw materials could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The cost of raw materials, including steel, and components used in the production of our railcars, represents a significant amount of our direct manufacturing costs per railcar. We generally include provisions in our railcar sales and leasing contracts that allow us to adjust prices as a result of increases and decreases in the cost of certain raw materials and components. From time to time, based on market conditions, we also enter into orders where such changes in material costs are not passed on to customers. The number of customers or orders for which we are not able to pass on price increases may increase in the future, which could adversely affect our operating margins and cash flows. If we are not able to pass on price increases to our customers, we may lose railcar orders or enter into contracts with less favorable contract terms such as contracts with fixed pricing provisions where material costs changes are not passed on to customers, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any fluctuations in the price or availability of steel, or any other material or component used in the production of our railcars or our railcar or industrial components, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Such price increases could reduce demand for our railcars or component products. Deliveries of raw materials and components may also fluctuate depending on various factors including supply and demand for the raw material or component, or governmental regulation relating to the raw material or component,

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including regulation relating to importation.
The variable needs of our railcar customers, the timing of completion, customer acceptance and shipment of orders, as well as the mix of railcars for lease versus direct sale, all may cause our revenues and income from operations to vary substantially each quarter, which could result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results.
Our results of operations in any particular quarterly period may be significantly affected by the number and type of railcars manufactured and shipped in that period, which is impacted by customer needs that may vary greatly quarter to quarter and year to year. In addition, because revenues and earnings related to leased railcars are recognized over the life of the lease, our quarterly results may vary depending on the mix of leased versus direct sale railcars that we ship during a given period. Demand for new railcars versus re-leased railcars may vary as well and may cause fluctuations in our backlog and negatively impact lease fleet utilization rates. Customers may decide to lease or buy our railcars based on many factors including tax and accounting considerations, interest rates, and operational flexibility. We have no control over these external considerations and changes in these factors could impact demand for our railcars for sale or lease. The customer acceptance and title transfer or customer acceptance and shipment of our railcars determine when we record the revenues associated with our railcar sales or leases.
Given this, the timing of customer acceptance and title transfer or customer acceptance and shipment of our railcars could cause fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results. The railroads could potentially go on strike or have other service interruptions, which could ultimately create a bottleneck and potentially cause us to slow down or halt our shipment and production schedules, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a result of these fluctuations, we believe that comparisons of our sales and operating results between quarterly periods within the same year and between quarterly periods within different years may not be meaningful and, as such, these comparisons should not be relied upon as indicators of our future performance.
If we lose any of our executive officers or key employees, our operations and ability to manage the day-to-day aspects of our business could be materially adversely affected.
Our future performance will substantially depend on our ability to retain and motivate our executive officers and key employees, both individually and as a group. If we lose any of our executive officers or key employees, who have many years of experience with our company and within the railcar industry and other manufacturing industries, or are unable to recruit qualified staff, our ability to manage the day-to-day aspects of our business could be materially adversely affected. The loss of the services of one or more of our executive officers or key employees, who also have strong personal ties with customers and suppliers, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not currently maintain “key person” life insurance. Further, we do not have employment contracts with our executive officers and key employees.
As of December 31, 2017, pursuant to the terms of an employment agreement with our former Chief Executive Officer, the employment agreement and the employment of the former Chief Executive Officer were terminated. We appointed John O’Bryan as President and Interim Chief Executive Officer effective January 1, 2018, and he was further appointed as President and Chief Executive Officer on February 5, 2018. As we transition to new leadership, we may experience certain operational inefficiencies and disruptions.
Our continuing transition to managing our own railcar lease fleet is subject to various risks and uncertainties and may adversely impact our customer relationships, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In anticipation of the sale of ARL (the ARL Sale) to an unaffiliated third party (the Buyer) on June 1, 2017, we entered into a railcar management transition agreement (the RMTA) to manage the transition, from ARL to us, of the management of railcars owned by us and our subsidiaries. The RMTA, among other things, (i) permits us to assume the management of our railcars following the consummation of the ARL Sale; (ii) requires us to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain the consent of noteholders (the Noteholder Consent) for ARI to replace ARL as manager of railcars owned by our subsidiary, Longtrain Leasing III, LLC (LLIII) under that certain Indenture, dated January 29, 2015, between LLIII and U.S. Bank National Association, as indenture trustee (the Longtrain Indenture), and certain related documents; and (iii) requires ARL to transfer to us certain books and records and electronic data with respect to our railcars and leasing business and otherwise assist in the transfer of the management of the leasing business to us. We may be unable to obtain the Noteholder Consent for a variety of reasons. If we do not obtain the Noteholder Consent, ARL, under the Buyer's management, will remain the manager of the railcars owned by LLIII under the Longtrain Indenture. We have no obligation to pay any consent or similar fees in connection with obtaining the Noteholder Consent.
The ARL Sale was completed on June 1, 2017, but the process of transitioning the management of our leasing business from

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ARL to ARI continues and may involve unexpected costs, expenses and/or delays. This transition may cause confusion among our customers, and may lead our customers to attempt to negotiate changes in our existing relationships or cause them to consider entering into business relationships with other parties, including ARL, under the Buyer's management, to our detriment. Further, we have engaged, and continue to engage, in a process to separate documentation of our leases from ARL’s leases. This process requires the cooperation of our leasing customers and financing partners and may take significant time to complete. If our customers and financing partners do not cooperate or we are delayed in completing this transition, we may need to rely on ARL’s continued cooperation, under the Buyer's management, to enforce our rights as lessor under our leases and to continue to manage certain leased railcars.
Under our railcar management agreements, we historically relied on ARL to manage and market our railcars for lease and re-lease. We added several key employees throughout 2017, who have joined the lease fleet management and sales team from ARL, as well as from elsewhere in the industry. While the core team is in place, we continue to look to hire additional complementary employees to support our sales team and lease fleet management groups. Our ability to continue to successfully manage our own railcar leasing business will depend in part on these employees continuing to support and manage our railcar leasing business. If we are unable to recruit, retain and train qualified staff, and do so in a timely manner, our ability to manage our lease fleet could be materially adversely affected.
We cannot ensure that the continuing transition of the management of our leasing business from ARL to ARI will be effective or completed in a timely manner or at all. If we are unsuccessful or delayed in this endeavor, we may experience a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Further, this continuing transition could disrupt our business by causing unforeseen operating difficulties, diverting management’s attention from day-to-day operations and requiring significant financial resources that would otherwise be used for the ongoing development of our business.
We may encounter challenges integrating the intellectual property that we have licensed for use in our leasing business, managing the cessation of use of certain of our intellectual property and protecting our intellectual property and confidential information from misuse.
Pursuant to the terms and conditions of the RMTA, ARL provides us an irrevocable, fully paid, non-transferable (except as set forth therein), royalty-free license to certain software and databases owned and used by ARL to manage leased railcars. We have substantially completed the initial transition, but we could experience problems or delays related to further integration of our systems or implementing improvements or enhancements to the software and databases. We may experience compatibility issues, additional training requirements, higher than expected costs for the integration, improvements or enhancements, or other challenges and delays. If we experience problems or delays with integration and/or potential system enhancements, this could negatively impact our customers and customer relationships, our ability to maintain and grow our leasing business and our reputation as a railcar lessor. It could also have an adverse effect on our ability to generate and interpret accurate management and financial reports and other information on a timely basis, which could materially adversely affect our financial reporting system and internal controls and our ability to manage our business.
The RMTA provides for the performance of services related to the software and databases by ARL for our benefit for a period of time after the ARL Sale. We will rely on ARL to satisfy its performance and payment obligations under the RMTA. If ARL is unable to satisfy its obligations under the RMTA, including its indemnification obligations, we could incur operational difficulties or losses.
The RMTA also provides for the termination, as of the consummation of the ARL Sale, of a Trademark License Agreement between us and ARL, pursuant to which we granted to ARL a license to use our trademarks “American Railcar” and the “diamond shape” of its logo, and provides for the wind-down of ARL’s use of such trademarks. We may experience problems with market and customer confusion as ARL transitions away from using the trademark American Railcar and its logo. The wind down of ARL’s use of our trademarks will occur over a period of time depending on when railcars are in need of service and can be remarked and whether railcars are subject to a financing that requires railcars to bear certain marks.

Although we have contractually agreed to certain protections, we may not be able to prevent ARL, under the Buyer’s management, from improperly using our proprietary information and intellectual property obtained by ARL in connection with its performance of duties as our lease fleet manager. If our intellectual property rights and confidential information are not adequately protected, our competitors could commercialize our technologies and use our information to compete against us in the market, which could result in a decrease in our sales and market share and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend upon a small number of customers that represent a large percentage of our revenues. The loss of any single significant customer, a reduction in sales to any significant customer or any significant customer's inability to pay us in a timely manner could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Railcars are typically sold pursuant to large, periodic orders, and therefore, a limited number of customers typically represent a significant percentage of our revenue in any given year. We also lease our railcars and provide railcar services to a limited number of customers. The loss of any significant portion of our sales, leases or railcar services to any major customer, the loss of a single major customer or a material adverse change in the financial condition of any one of our major customers could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, we cannot provide any assurances that we will continue to provide railcar services or to sell railcars to ARL now that the ARL Sale has been completed and ARL is under the Buyer's management. If one of our significant customers was unable or unwilling to pay for our products or services, it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Exposure to fluctuations in commodity and energy prices or reduced demand for commodities may impact our results of operations.
Fluctuations in commodity or energy prices, including crude oil and gas prices, or reduced demand for commodities could negatively impact the activities of our customers resulting in a corresponding adverse effect on the demand for our products and services. These shifts in demand could affect our results of operations and could have an adverse effect on our profitability.
Prices for oil and gas are subject to large fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in the supply of and demand for oil and gas, market uncertainty and a variety of other economic factors that are beyond our control. Worldwide economic, political and military events, including war, terrorist activity, events in the Middle East and initiatives by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), have contributed, and are likely to continue to contribute, to price and volume volatility. Most recently, the increasing global supply of oil in conjunction with weakening demand from slowing economic growth in Europe and Asia has created downward pressure on crude oil prices. Changes in environmental or governmental regulations, pipeline capacity, the price of crude oil and gas and related products and other factors have reduced, and may continue to reduce demand for railcars in the energy transportation industry, including our primary railcar products, and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Demand for railcars that are used to transport ethanol and other renewable fuels may be affected by government subsidies and mandates, which may be enacted, changed or eliminated from time to time. It is possible that the reduction or elimination of current US mandates for ethanol blending in motor fuels could reduce the production of ethanol, which would reduce demand for portions of our tank railcar fleet and negatively impact our revenue and profitability.
Fluctuations in the supply of components and raw materials we use in manufacturing railcars, which are often only available from a limited number of suppliers, could cause production delays or reductions in the number of railcars we manufacture, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our railcar manufacturing business depends on the adequate supply of numerous railcar components, such as railcar wheels, axles, brakes, bearings, yokes, sideframes, bolsters and other heavy castings and raw materials, such as steel. Some of these components and raw materials are only available from a limited number of domestic suppliers. Strong demand can cause industry-wide shortages of many critical components and raw materials as reliable suppliers could reach capacity production levels. Supply constraints in our industry are exacerbated because, although multiple suppliers may produce certain components, railcar manufacturing regulations and the physical capabilities of manufacturing facilities restrict the types and sizes of components and raw materials that manufacturers may use.
In addition, we do not carry significant inventories of certain components and procure most of our components on an as-needed basis. In the event that our suppliers of railcar components and raw materials were to stop or reduce the production of railcar components and raw materials that we use, or refuse to do business with us for any reason, our business would be disrupted. Our inability to obtain components and raw materials in required quantities or of acceptable quality could result in significant delays or reductions in railcar shipments and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on a small number of suppliers for the materials we purchase for our business. If any of our significant suppliers of raw materials and components were to shut down operations, our business and financial results could be materially adversely affected as we may incur substantial delays and significant expense in finding alternative sources. The quality and reliability of alternative sources may not be the same and these alternative sources may charge significantly higher prices. While we do not expect a significant impact to our operations or supply chain, our Ohio Castings joint venture is expected to remain idled through most, if not all, of 2018, and this will require us to procure select components from third party vendors.
The impact of recently enacted U.S. tax laws is not yet clear.
Congress recently enacted legislation commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the 2017 Tax Act). The 2017 Tax Act made significant changes to U.S. federal income tax laws. Changes include, but are not limited to: a federal corporate tax rate

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decrease from 35% to 21%, effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017; the transition of U.S international taxation from a worldwide tax system to a territorial system; and a one-time transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of cumulative foreign earnings as of December 31, 2017. We have estimated the impact of the 2017 Tax Act in our income tax provision for the year ended December 31, 2017 in accordance with our understanding of the 2017 Tax Act and guidance available as of the date of this filing and as a result have recorded adjustments to our various tax balances, current, long-term and deferred tax assets and liabilities, all during the fourth quarter of 2017, the period in which the legislation was enacted. We cannot assure that this estimate is accurate. The interpretations of many provisions of the 2017 Tax Act are still unclear. We cannot predict when or to what extent any U.S. federal tax laws, regulations, interpretations, or rulings clarifying the 2017 Tax Act will be issued or the impact of any such guidance on us. It is also unclear how many U.S. states, if any, will incorporate these federal law changes, or portions thereof, into their tax codes. Any subsequent changes to state tax laws may impact our financial condition.
Companies affiliated with Mr. Carl Icahn are important to our business.
We manufacture railcars and railcar components for, lease railcars to, and provide railcar services to companies affiliated with Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP. We are currently subject to agreements, and may enter into additional agreements, with certain of these affiliates that are important to our business. To the extent our relationships with affiliates of Mr. Carl Icahn change due to the sale of his interest in us, such affiliates or otherwise, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Affiliates of Mr. Carl Icahn accounted for approximately 2.8%, 4.3% and 33.1% of our consolidated revenues in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. This revenue is primarily attributable to railcar services provided to ARL for 2017 and 2016 and the sale of railcars to ARL for 2015. Upon consummation of the ARL Sale as of June 1, 2017, ARL is no longer affiliated with us or Mr. Carl Icahn. ARL has no obligation to purchase our railcars or services and we cannot assure you that we will receive any revenues from ARL in the future. Our revenue from affiliates also has been and could continue to be generated from a purchasing and engineering services agreement and license with ACF, under which we provide purchasing support and engineering services to ACF in connection with ACF's manufacture and sale of certain tank railcars at its facility. Additionally, we have a repair services and support agreement and license with ACF, under which we provide certain sales and administrative and technical services, materials and purchasing support and engineering services to ACF to provide repair and retrofit services. We also have entered into a parts purchasing and sale agreement and license with ACF, under which we from time to time, purchase from and sell to ACF certain parts for railcars. To the extent our relationships with Mr. Carl Icahn or companies affiliated with him change, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Mr. Carl Icahn exerts significant influence over us and his interests may conflict with the interests of our other stockholders.
Mr. Carl Icahn currently controls approximately 62% of the voting power of our common stock, through IELP, and is able to control or exert substantial influence over us, including controlling the election of our directors and most matters requiring board or stockholder approval, including business strategies, mergers, business combinations, acquisitions or dispositions of significant assets, issuances of common stock, incurrence of debt or other financing and the payment of dividends. The existence of a controlling stockholder may have the effect of making it difficult for, or may discourage or delay, a third party from seeking to acquire a majority of our outstanding common stock, or a significant amount of our assets, which could adversely affect the market price of our stock.
As disclosed by a Schedule 13D filed on August 14, 2015, Mr. Carl Icahn and the Reporting Persons listed therein do not intend to sell their respective shares pursuant to our Stock Repurchase Program and, accordingly, the percentage of our shares beneficially owned by the Reporting Persons has increased and may continue to increase during the Stock Repurchase Program, thus further increasing Mr. Carl Icahn's control and influence over us.
Mr. Carl Icahn owns, controls and has an interest in a wide array of companies, some of which, such as ACF and, prior to the ARL Sale, ARL, as described above, may compete directly or indirectly with us. As a result, his interests may not always be consistent with our interests or the interests of our other stockholders. For example, ACF has previously manufactured railcars for us and under a purchasing and engineering services agreement and license has been manufacturing and selling tank railcars with engineering, purchasing and design support from us. Mr. Carl Icahn and entities controlled by him may also pursue acquisitions or business opportunities that may be in competition with or complementary to our business. Our articles of incorporation allow Mr. Carl Icahn, entities controlled by him, and any director, officer, member, partner, stockholder or employee of Mr. Carl Icahn or entities controlled by him, to take advantage of such corporate opportunities without first presenting such opportunities to us, unless such opportunities are expressly offered to any such party solely in, and as a direct result of, his or her capacity as our director, officer or employee. As a result, corporate opportunities that may benefit us may

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not be available to us in a timely manner, or at all. To the extent that conflicts of interest may arise among us, Mr. Carl Icahn and his affiliates, those conflicts may be resolved in a manner adverse to us or you.
Litigation claims could increase our costs and weaken our financial condition.
We are currently, and may from time to time be, involved in various claims or legal proceedings arising out of our operations. The nature of our businesses and assets expose us to the potential for claims and litigation related to personal injury, property damage, environmental claims, regulatory claims, contractual disputes and various other matters. In particular, railcars we manufacture and lease will be used in a variety of manners, which may include carrying hazardous, flammable, and/or corrosive materials. An accident involving a railcar carrying such materials could lead to litigation and subject us to significant liability, particularly where the accident involves serious personal injury or loss of life. Our railcars, as well as our railcar and industrial components, are subject to risks of breakdowns, malfunctions, casualty and other negative events and it is possible that claims for personal injury, loss of life, property damage, business losses and other liability arising out of these or other types of incidents will be made against us. Additionally, in our normal course of business from time to time we enter into contracts with third parties that may lead to contractual disputes. Our failure to manufacture and maintain railcars in compliance with governmental regulations and industry rules could also expose us to fines and claims. Adverse outcomes in some or all of these matters could result in judgments against us for significant monetary damages that could increase our costs and weaken our financial condition. We seek contractual recourse and indemnification in the ordinary course of business, maintain reserves for reasonably estimable liabilities, and purchase liability insurance at coverage levels based upon commercial norms in our industries in an effort to mitigate our liability exposure. Nevertheless, our reserves may be inadequate to cover the uninsured portion of claims or judgments. Any such claims or judgments could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to a variety of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and the cost of complying, or our failure to comply, with such requirements could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations relating to the release or discharge of materials into the environment; the management, use, processing, handling, storage, transport or disposal of hazardous materials; or otherwise relating to the protection of public and employee health, safety and the environment. These laws and regulations expose us to liability for the environmental condition of our current or formerly owned or operated facilities, and may expose us to liability for the conduct of others or for our actions that complied with all applicable laws at the time these actions were taken. They may also expose us to liability for claims of personal injury or property damage related to alleged exposure to hazardous or toxic materials on our properties or as a result of a spill or discharge of material from a railcar we own. Despite our intention to be in compliance, we cannot guarantee that we will at all times comply with such requirements. The cost of complying with these requirements may also increase substantially in future years. If we violate or fail to comply with these requirements, we could be fined or otherwise sanctioned by regulators. In addition, these requirements are complex, change frequently and may become more stringent over time, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our failure to maintain and comply with environmental and other permits that we are required to maintain could result in fines, penalties or other sanctions and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, as these permits expire and are renewed, new or different requirements could be imposed on us, which may give rise to additional compliance and other costs that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Future events, such as new environmental or other regulations, changes in or modified interpretations of existing laws and regulations or enforcement policies, newly discovered information or further investigation or evaluation of the potential health hazards of products or business activities, may give rise to additional compliance and other costs that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Volatility in the global financial markets may adversely affect our customers and suppliers resulting in adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
During periods of volatility in the global financial markets, certain of our customers could delay or otherwise reduce their purchases of railcars and other products and services or could attempt to cancel, terminate, delay or renegotiate orders for sale or ongoing leases. If volatile conditions in the global credit markets prevent our customers' access to credit, order volumes may decrease or customers may default on payments owed to us or return railcars to us at the end of a lease rather than re-leasing those railcars. Some of the end users of our railcars acquire them through leasing arrangements with our leasing company customers. Economic conditions that result in higher interest rates may result in stricter borrowing conditions that could increase the cost of, or potentially deter or delay, new leasing arrangements. These factors may cause our customers to purchase or lease fewer railcars, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If

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customers attempt to cancel, terminate, delay or renegotiate purchase orders or lease contracts, we may experience increased enforcement costs, including for litigation.
The railcars in our lease fleet consist of tank and hopper railcars. The lessees of these types of railcars have historically been concentrated for use in certain industries and for certain products and our lessees generally reflect such industry and product concentrations. Consequently, any significant economic downturn in these industries or product markets could have a material adverse effect on the creditworthiness of the lessees and on the ability of such lessees to perform under the leases, which may impact our ability to re-lease railcars to those lessees or to other potential lessees with a need for railcars of the types we operate, reduce our revenue, divert management's attention or limit our ability to further attract financing to add liquidity in the future.
If our suppliers face challenges obtaining credit, selling their products, or otherwise operating their businesses, the supply of materials we purchase from them to manufacture our products may be interrupted. Any of these conditions or events could result in reductions in our revenues, increased price competition, or increased operating costs, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Train derailments or other accidents involving our products could subject us to legal claims that may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We manufacture railcars for our customers to transport a variety of commodities, including railcars that transport hazardous materials such as crude oil and other petroleum products. We also manufacture railcar components, as well as industrial components for use in several markets, including the trucking, construction, mining and oil and gas exploration markets. We could be subject to various legal claims, including claims for negligence, personal injury, physical damage and product liability, as well as potential penalties and liability under environmental or other laws and regulations, in the event of a train derailment or other accident involving our products or services. If we become subject to any such claims and are unable to resolve them successfully, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Our relationships with our joint ventures could be unsuccessful, which could materially adversely affect our business.
We have entered into joint venture agreements with other companies to increase our sourcing alternatives and reduce costs. We also may seek to expand our relationships or enter into new agreements with other companies. In addition, we may experience managerial or other conflicts with our joint venture partners. If our joint venture partners are unable to fulfill their contractual obligations or if these relationships are otherwise not successful in the future, our manufacturing costs could increase, we could encounter production disruptions, growth opportunities could fail to materialize, or we could be required to fund such joint ventures in amounts significantly greater than initially anticipated, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If any of our joint ventures generate significant losses, it could adversely affect our results of operations. For example, if our Axis joint venture is unable to operate as anticipated, incurs significant losses or otherwise is unable to honor its obligation to us under the Axis loan, our financial results or financial position could be materially adversely affected. In addition, any fluctuation in the price or availability of castings from other sources while the Ohio Castings plant is idled could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our investment in our lease fleet may use significant amounts of cash, which may require us to secure additional capital and we may be unable to arrange capital on favorable terms, or at all.
We use existing cash and cash generated through lease fleet financings to manufacture railcars we lease to customers, while cash from lease revenues is received over the term of the applicable lease. Depending upon the number of railcars that we lease and the amount of cash used in other operations, our cash balances and our availability under any of our lease fleet financings could be depleted, requiring us to seek additional capital. We rely on banks and capital markets to fund our lease fleet financings. These markets may experience high levels of volatility and access to capital may be limited for extended periods of time. In addition to conditions in the capital markets, changes in our financial performance or credit ratings or ratings outlook, as determined by rating agencies, could cause us to incur increased borrowing costs or to have greater difficulty accessing public and private markets for debt. Further, changes in interest rates could make it more difficult for us to incur additional debt or could impact the costs of our current financing facilities. Our inability to secure additional capital, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, may limit our ability to support operations, maintain or expand our existing business, or take advantage of new business opportunities. We could also experience defaults on leases that could further constrain cash, impact our ability to re-lease railcars, reduce our revenues, divert management's attention or limit our ability to further attract financing to add liquidity in the future.
The success of our railcar leasing business is dependent, in part, on our lessees performing their obligations.

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The ability of each lessee to perform its obligations under a lease will depend primarily on such lessee's financial condition, as well as various other factors. The financial condition of a lessee may be affected by numerous factors beyond our control, including, but not limited to, competition, operating costs, general economic conditions and environmental and other governmental regulation of or affecting the lessee's industry. High default rates on leases could increase the portion of railcars that may need to be re-marketed after they are repossessed from defaulting lessees, impact our ability to re-lease railcars to lessees, reduce our revenues, divert management's attention or limit our ability to further attract financing to add liquidity in the future. There can be no assurance that the historical default experience with respect to our lease fleet will continue in the future.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our obligations and we may not be able to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness and to fund planned capital expenditures, strategic transactions, joint venture capital requirements or expansion efforts will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. This, to a certain extent, is subject to economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.
Our business may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow from operations and there can be no assurance that future borrowings will be available to us in amounts sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness as such indebtedness matures and to fund our other liquidity needs, or at all. If this is the case, we will need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity, and we cannot be certain that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. We might have to adopt one or more alternatives, such as reducing or delaying planned expenses and capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring debt, or obtaining additional equity or debt financing. These financing strategies may not be implemented on satisfactory terms, if at all. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness or obtain additional financing and to do so on commercially reasonable terms will depend on our financial condition at the time, restrictions in any agreements governing our indebtedness and other factors, including the condition of the financial markets and the railcar industry.
If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations and additional borrowings, refinancing or proceeds of asset sales are not available to us, we may not have sufficient cash to enable us to meet all of our obligations.
Our indebtedness could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and prevent us from fulfilling our indebtedness obligations.
As of December 31, 2017, our total debt was $545.6 million, net of unamortized debt issuance costs of $4.6 million, consisting of borrowings under our lease fleet financings. In February 2016, we repaid amounts outstanding under our revolving loan in full and as of the date of this report, we have borrowing availability of $200.0 million under this facility.
Our indebtedness could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, it could:
increase our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments of our indebtedness, which would reduce the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, expansion efforts and other general corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate, including by restricting our ability to manage our own lease fleet in connection with the ARL Sale;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and
limit, among other things, our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, general corporate purposes or acquisitions.
Our inability to comply with covenants in place or our inability to make the required principal and interest payments may cause an event of default, which could have a substantial adverse impact to our business, financial condition and results of operations. In the event of a default on our lease fleet financings, the debtors may foreclose on all or a portion of the fleet of railcars and related leases used to secure the financing. Such foreclosure, if a significant number of railcars or related leases are affected, could result in the loss of a significant amount of our assets and adversely affect revenues.
Our wholly-owned subsidiary, LLIII, lease fleet financing is an obligation of LLIII, is generally non-recourse to ARI, and is secured by a first lien on the subject assets of LLIII consisting of railcars, railcar leases, receivables and related assets, subject to limited exceptions.

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Despite our indebtedness, we may still be able to incur substantially more debt, as may our subsidiaries, which could further exacerbate the risks associated with our indebtedness.
Despite our indebtedness, we may be able to incur future indebtedness, including secured indebtedness, and this debt could be substantial. If new debt is added to our or our subsidiaries' current debt levels, the related risks that we or they now face could be magnified.
Our Stock Repurchase Program could affect the price of our common stock and increase volatility and may be suspended or terminated at any time, which may result in a decrease in the trading price of our common stock.
On July 28, 2015 our board of directors authorized the repurchase of up to $250 million of our outstanding common stock. The Stock Repurchase Program will end upon the earlier of the date on which it is terminated by the board or when all authorized repurchases are completed. The timing and amount of stock repurchases, if any, will be determined based upon our evaluation of market conditions and other factors. The Stock Repurchase Program may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time and we have no obligation to repurchase any amount of our common stock under the Stock Repurchase Program.
Repurchases pursuant to our Stock Repurchase Program could affect our stock price and increase the volatility of our common stock. The existence of a stock repurchase program could also cause our stock price to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for our stock. Although our Stock Repurchase Program is intended to enhance long-term stockholder value, we cannot assure this will occur. Further, short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program's effectiveness. Under the Stock Repurchase Program, no repurchases were made during 2017 and board authorization of $164 million remains available for further stock repurchases.
Repurchases pursuant to our Stock Repurchase Program could also impact the relative percentage interests of our stockholders and could cause a stockholder to become subject to additional reporting requirements under SEC rules and regulations or allow a stockholder to exert additional control over us.
The level of our reported railcar backlog may not necessarily indicate what our future revenues will be and our actual revenues may fall short of the estimated revenue value attributed to our railcar backlog, or may be delayed in conversion beyond our original estimates.
We define backlog as the number of new railcars to which our customers have committed in writing to purchase or lease from us that have not been shipped, net of any cancellations. The estimated backlog value in dollars is the anticipated revenue on the railcars included in the backlog for purchase and the estimated fair market value of the railcars included in the backlog for lease, though actual revenues for these leases are recognized pursuant to the terms of each lease. We cannot guarantee that the actual revenue from these orders will equal our reported estimated backlog value or that our future revenue efforts will be successful. Our competitors may not define railcar backlog in the same manner as we do, which could make comparisons of our railcar backlog with theirs misleading. Customer orders may be subject to requests for delays in deliveries, inspection rights and other customary industry terms and conditions, which could prevent or delay our railcar backlog from being shipped and converted into revenues. Further, especially during economic downturns or industry-specific downturns, some of our customers may attempt to cancel or modify their contracts even if not permitted to do so under the contract. Examples of such modifications include delivery deferral, substituting a used railcar in place of a new railcar, or replacing a railcar that was ordered for direct sale with a leased railcar, or vice versa. Consequently, we may not be able to recover all revenue or earnings lost in the event of a breach of contract or if we agree to a customer accommodation, either of which could also impact the timing of conversion of our backlog into revenues. Our reported railcar backlog may not be converted into revenues in any particular period, if at all, and the actual revenues may not equal our reported estimates of railcar backlog value.
We may pursue strategic opportunities, including new joint ventures, acquisitions, new business endeavors or the sale of all or a portion of our business or assets, that involve inherent risks, any of which may cause us not to realize anticipated benefits and we may have difficulty integrating the operations of any joint ventures that we form, companies that we acquire or new business endeavors, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
We may not be able to successfully identify suitable joint venture, acquisition, business combination, new business endeavor or sale opportunities or complete any particular transaction on acceptable terms. Our identification of suitable joint venture opportunities, acquisition candidates, new business endeavors or buyers and the integration of new and acquired business operations involve risks inherent in assessing the values, strengths, weaknesses, risks and profitability of these opportunities. This includes their effects on our business, diversion of our management's attention and risks associated with unanticipated problems or unforeseen liabilities. These issues may require significant financial resources that could otherwise be used for the ongoing development of our current operations.
The difficulties of integration may be increased by the necessity of coordinating geographically dispersed organizations,

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integrating staff with disparate business backgrounds and combining different corporate cultures. These difficulties could be further increased to the extent we pursue opportunities internationally or in new markets where we do not have significant experience. In addition, we may not be effective in retaining key employees or customers of the combined businesses. We may face integration issues pertaining to the internal controls and operations functions of the acquired companies and we may not realize cost efficiencies or synergies that we anticipated when selecting our acquisition or sale candidates. Any of these items could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our failure to identify suitable joint ventures, acquisition opportunities, business combinations, new business endeavors or sales may restrict our ability to grow our business. If we are successful in pursuing such opportunities, we may be required to expend significant funds, incur additional debt, issue additional securities or sell our business or assets, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and be dilutive to our stockholders. If we spend significant funds, incur additional debt or dispense with assets or stock, our ability to obtain financing for working capital or other purposes could decline and we may be more vulnerable to economic downturns and competitive pressures.
Our integration of our enterprise resource planning (ERP) system could negatively impact our business.
During the third quarter of 2015, we implemented an ERP system for our manufacturing, railcar leasing and corporate segments that supports substantially all of our operating and financial functions. We implemented this ERP system for our railcar services segment during the second quarter of 2016. We experienced delays with this project and terminated and filed suit against a systems implementer we previously hired to implement this system. Although we hired a new systems implementer and the ERP system has been fully implemented, we could experience unforeseen issues, including compatibility issues, training requirements and other integration challenges and delays. Additionally, a significant problem with the integration with other systems or ongoing management of an ERP system and related systems could have an adverse effect on our ability to generate and interpret accurate management and financial reports and other information on a timely basis, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial reporting system and internal controls and adversely affect our ability to manage our business or comply with various regulations.
Increasing insurance claims and expenses could lower profitability and increase business risk.
The nature of our business subjects us to product liability, property damage, and personal injury claims, especially in connection with the manufacture, repair or other servicing of products or components that are used in the transport or handling of hazardous, toxic, or volatile materials. We maintain reserves for reasonably estimable liability claims and liability insurance coverage at levels based upon commercial norms in the industries in which we operate and our historical claims experience. There is no guarantee that cost-effective insurance will consistently be available to us. Over the last several years, insurance carriers have raised premiums for many companies operating in our industries. Increased insurance premiums may further increase our insurance expense as coverages expire or cause us to raise our self-insured retention. If the number or severity of claims within our self-insured retention increases, we could suffer costs in excess of our reserves. An unusually large liability claim or a series of claims based on a failure repeated throughout our mass production process may exceed our insurance coverage or result in direct damages if we were unable or elected not to insure against certain hazards because of high premiums or other reasons. In addition, the availability of, and our ability to collect on, insurance coverage is often subject to factors beyond our control. Moreover, any accident or incident involving us, even if we are fully insured or not held to be liable, could negatively affect our reputation among customers and the public, thereby making it more difficult for us to compete effectively, and could materially adversely affect the cost and availability of insurance in the future.
Uncertainty surrounding acceptance of our new product offerings by our customers, and costs associated with those new offerings, could materially adversely affect our business.
Our strategy depends in part on our continued development and sale of new products, particularly new railcar designs, in order to expand or maintain our market share in our current and new markets. Any new or modified product design that we develop may not gain widespread acceptance in the marketplace and any such product may not be able to compete successfully with existing or new product designs that our competitors may have. Furthermore, we may experience significant initial costs of production of new products, particularly railcar products, related to training, labor and operating inefficiencies. To the extent that the total costs of production significantly exceed our anticipated costs of production, we may incur losses on the sale of any new products.
Equipment failures, delays in deliveries or extensive damage to our facilities, particularly our railcar manufacturing plants in Paragould or Marmaduke, Arkansas, could lead to production or service curtailments or shutdowns.
An interruption in manufacturing capabilities at our railcar plants in Paragould or Marmaduke or at any of our manufacturing facilities, whether as a result of equipment failure or any other reason, could reduce, prevent or delay production of our railcars or railcar and industrial components, which could alter the scheduled delivery dates to our customers and affect our production

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schedule. This could result in the delay or termination of orders, the loss of future sales and a negative impact to our reputation with our customers and in the railcar industry, all of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
All of our facilities and equipment are subject to the risk of catastrophic loss due to unanticipated events, such as fires, earthquakes, explosions, floods, tornados, hurricanes or weather conditions. If there is a natural disaster or other serious disruption at any of our facilities, we may experience plant shutdowns or periods of reduced production as a result of equipment failures, loss of power, delays in equipment deliveries, or extensive damage to any of our facilities, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. 
Additionally, our insurance coverage may not adequately compensate us for losses incurred as a result of natural or other disasters.
Our mobile units and mini shop facilities may expose us to additional risks that may materially adversely affect our business.
Our mobile units and mini shop repair facilities are available to assist customers in quickly resolving railcar maintenance issues and services may be performed on a customer's property, thereby increasing our susceptibility to liability. Additionally, the resources available to employees to assist in providing services out of these facilities are less than what is available at a full repair facility. The effects of these risks may, individually or in the aggregate, materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our failure to complete capital expenditure projects on time and within budget, or the failure of these projects to operate as anticipated could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our capital expenditure projects are subject to a number of risks and contingencies over which we may have little control and that may adversely affect the cost and timing of the completion of those projects, or the capacity or efficiencies of those projects once completed. If these capital expenditure projects do not achieve the results anticipated, we may not be able to satisfy our operational goals on a timely basis, if at all. If we are unable to complete such capital expenditure projects on time or within budget, or if those projects do not achieve the capacity or efficiencies anticipated, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
The price of our common stock is subject to volatility.
The market price for our common stock has varied between a high closing sales price of $48.60 per share and a low closing sales price of $34.58 per share in the past twenty-four months as of December 31, 2017. This volatility may affect the price at which our common stock could be sold. In addition, the broader stock market has experienced price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has affected the market prices of securities issued by many companies for reasons unrelated to their operating performance and may adversely affect the price of our common stock. The price for our common stock is likely to continue to be volatile and subject to price and volume fluctuations in response to market and other factors, including the other factors discussed in these risk factors.
In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of their stock, many companies have been the subject of securities class action litigation. If we became involved in securities class action litigation in the future, it could result in substantial costs and diversion of our management's attention and resources and could harm our stock price, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Various other factors could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate substantially, including financial market and general economic changes, changes in governmental regulation, significant railcar industry announcements or developments, the introduction of new products or technologies by us or our competitors, our Stock Repurchase Program, and changes in other conditions or trends in our industry or in the markets of any of our significant customers.
Other factors that could cause our stock's price to fluctuate could be actual or anticipated variations in our or our competitors' quarterly or annual financial results or other significant press releases from us or our competitors, financial results failing to meet expectations of analysts or investors, including the level of our backlog and number of orders received during the period, changes in securities analysts' estimates of our future performance or of that of our competitors and the general health and outlook of our industry.
Risks related to our activities or potential activities outside of the U.S. and any potential expansion into new geographic markets could adversely affect our results of operations.
Conducting business outside the U.S. subjects us to various risks, including changing economic, legal and political conditions,

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work stoppages, exchange controls, currency fluctuations, terrorist activities directed at U.S. companies, armed conflicts and unexpected changes in the U.S. and the laws of other countries relating to tariffs, trade restrictions, transportation regulations, foreign investments and taxation. Further, anti-corruption laws in the U.S. and in some foreign countries could conflict with certain local customs and practices and any failure to comply with laws governing international business practices may result in substantial penalties and fines. Some foreign countries in which we operate have regulatory authorities that regulate railroad safety, railcar design and railcar component part design, performance and manufacturing.
In addition, changes in regulatory requirements, tariffs and other trade barriers, more stringent rules relating to labor or the environment, adverse tax consequences and price exchange controls could make the manufacturing and distribution of our products internationally more difficult. The failure to comply with laws governing international business practices may result in substantial penalties and fines. Any international expansion or acquisition that we undertake could heighten these risks related to operating outside of the U.S.
Some of our railcar services and component manufacturing employees belong to labor unions and strikes or work stoppages by them or unions formed by some or all of our other employees in the future could materially adversely affect our operations.
As of December 31, 2017, the employees at our sites that were party to collective bargaining agreements represented, in the aggregate, approximately 10.1% of our total workforce. Disputes with regard to the terms of these agreements or our potential inability to negotiate acceptable contracts with these unions in the future could result in, among other things, strikes, work stoppages or other slowdowns by the affected workers. We cannot guarantee that our relations with our union workforce will remain positive nor can we guarantee that union organizers will not succeed in future attempts to organize our railcar manufacturing employees or employees at our other facilities. If our workers were to engage in a strike, work stoppage or other slowdown, other employees were to become unionized or the terms and conditions in future labor agreements were renegotiated, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations and higher ongoing labor costs. In addition, we could face higher labor costs in the future as a result of severance or other charges associated with layoffs, shutdowns or reductions in the size and scope of our operations.
If ACF does not, or is unable to, honor its remedial or indemnity obligations to us regarding environmental matters, such environmental matters could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Certain real properties we acquired from ACF in 1994 had been involved in investigation and remediation activities to address contamination both before and after their transfer to ARI. ACF is an affiliate of Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP. Substantially all of the issues identified with respect to these properties relate to the use of these properties prior to their transfer to us by ACF and for which ACF has retained liability for environmental contamination that may have existed at the time of transfer to us. ACF has also agreed to indemnify us for any cost that might be incurred with those existing issues. As of the date of this report, we do not believe we will incur material costs in connection with activities relating to these properties, but we cannot assure that this will be the case. If ACF fails to honor its obligations to us, we could be responsible for the cost of any additional investigation or remediation activities relating to these properties that may be required. These additional costs could be material or could interfere with the operation of our business. Any environmental liabilities we may incur that are not covered by adequate insurance or indemnification will also increase our costs and have a negative impact on our profitability.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property and prevent its improper use by third parties, our ability to compete in the market may be harmed.
Various patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark laws afford only limited protection and may not prevent our competitors from duplicating our products or gaining access to our proprietary information and technology. These means also may not permit us to gain or maintain a competitive advantage. To the extent we expand internationally, we become subject to the risk that foreign intellectual property laws will not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as intellectual property laws in the U.S.
Any of our patents may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or rendered unenforceable. We cannot guarantee that we will be successful should one or more of our patents be challenged for any reason. If our patent claims are rendered invalid or unenforceable, or narrowed in scope, the patent coverage afforded our products could be impaired, which could significantly impede our ability to market our products, negatively affect our competitive position and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our pending or future patent applications may not result in an issued patent and, if patents are issued to us, such patents may not provide meaningful protection against competitors or against competitive technologies. The U.S. federal courts may invalidate our patents or find them unenforceable. Competitors may also be able to design around our patents. Other parties

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may develop and obtain patent protection for more effective technologies, designs or methods. If these developments were to occur, it could have an adverse effect on our sales. If our intellectual property rights are not adequately protected we may not be able to commercialize our technologies, products or services and our competitors could commercialize our technologies, which could result in a decrease in our sales and market share and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our products could infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may lead to litigation that could itself be costly, result in the payment of substantial damages or royalties, and prevent us from using technology that is essential to our products.
We cannot guarantee that our products, manufacturing processes or other methods do not infringe the patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties. Infringement and other intellectual property claims and proceedings brought against us, whether successful or not, could result in substantial costs and harm our reputation. Such claims and proceedings can also distract and divert our management and key staff from other tasks important to the success of our business. In addition, intellectual property litigation or claims could force us to do one or more of the following:
cease selling or using any of our products that incorporate the asserted intellectual property, which would adversely affect our revenues;
pay substantial damages for past use of the asserted intellectual property;
obtain a license from the holder of the asserted intellectual property, which license may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all; and
redesign or rename, in the case of trademark claims, our products to avoid infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may be costly and time-consuming, if possible at all.
In the event of an adverse determination in an intellectual property suit or proceeding, or our failure to license essential technology, our sales could be harmed and our costs could increase, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our investment activities are subject to risks that could materially adversely affect our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
From time to time, we may invest in marketable securities, or derivatives thereof, including higher risk equity securities and high yield debt instruments. These securities are subject to general credit, liquidity, and market risks and interest rate fluctuations that have affected various sectors of the financial markets and in the past have caused overall tightening of the credit markets and declines in the stock markets. The market risks associated with any investments we may make could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
Our investments at any given time also may become highly concentrated within a particular company, industry, asset category, trading style or financial or economic market. In that event, our investment portfolio will be more susceptible to fluctuations in value resulting from adverse economic conditions affecting the performance of that particular company, industry, asset category, trading style or economic market than a less concentrated portfolio would be. As a result, our investment portfolio could become concentrated and its aggregate return may be volatile and may be affected substantially by the performance of only one or a few holdings. For reasons not necessarily attributable to any of the risks set forth in this report (for example, supply/demand imbalances or other market forces), the prices of the securities in which we invest may decline substantially.
Changes in assumptions or investment performance related to pension plans that we sponsor could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We are responsible for making funding contributions to two frozen pension plans and are liable for any unfunded liabilities that may exist should any of our plans be terminated. Our liability and resulting costs for these plans may increase or decrease based upon a number of factors, including actuarial assumptions used, the discount rate used in calculating the present value of future liabilities, and investment performance, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. There is no assurance that interest rates will remain constant or that our pension fund assets can earn the expected rate of return, and our actual experience may be significantly different. Our pension expenses and funding may also be greater than we currently anticipate if our assumptions regarding plan earnings and expenses turn out to be incorrect.
We may be required to reduce the value of our inventory, long-lived assets, investment in joint ventures, and/or goodwill, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be required to reduce inventory carrying values using the lower of cost or market approach in the future due to a

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decline in market conditions in the industries in which we operate, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Future events, such as a weak economic environment or challenging market conditions, new or modified laws and regulations affecting our railcars, and events related to particular customers or railcar types could cause us to conclude that impairment indicators exist and that our investment in our joint ventures or our goodwill associated with our acquired businesses is impaired. Any resulting impairment loss related to reductions in the value of our inventory, long-lived assets, investments in joint ventures, or our goodwill could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the long-lived assets may not be recoverable. As discussed in Note 9, based on declined industry demand, Ohio Castings was idled in January 2017 and continues to remain idle. The Company expects that Ohio Castings will remain idle through most, if not all, of 2018, subject to re-evaluation based on changes in future demand expectations. Therefore, Ohio Castings performed an analysis of long-lived assets as of December 31, 2017, in accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment. Based on this analysis, Ohio Castings concluded that there was no impairment of its long-lived assets. In turn, ARI evaluated its investment in Ohio Castings and determined there was no impairment. The Company and Ohio Castings will continue to monitor for impairment as necessary.
As discussed in Note 3 and Note 8 of our consolidated financial statements to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, no other triggering events occurred in 2017 to cause concern that our long-lived assets or goodwill would be impaired and thus no impairment loss was noted in 2017. Additionally, no indications were identified that would suggest we need to reduce our inventory carrying values that are not already reflected in the current balances. We perform an annual goodwill impairment test each year. Assumptions used in our impairment tests regarding future operating results of our reporting units could prove to be inaccurate. This could cause an adverse change in our valuation and thus any of our impairment tests may have been flawed. Any future impairment tests are subject to the same risks.
The use of railcars as a significant mode of transporting freight could decline, become more efficient over time, experience a shift in types of modal transportation, and/or certain railcar types could become obsolete.
As the freight transportation markets we serve continue to evolve and become more efficient, the use of railcars may decline in favor of other more economic modes of transportation. Features and functionality specific to certain railcar types could result in those railcars becoming obsolete as customer requirements for freight delivery change. Our operations may be adversely impacted by changes in the preferred method used by customers to ship their products or changes in demand for particular products. The industries in which our customers operate are driven by dynamic market forces and trends, which are in turn influenced by economic and political factors in the U.S. and abroad. Demand for our railcars may be significantly affected by changes in the markets in which our customers operate. A significant reduction in customer demand for transportation or manufacture of a particular product or change in the preferred method of transportation used by customers to ship their products could result in the economic obsolescence of our railcars, including those leased by our customers.
Our stock price may decline due to sales of shares beneficially owned by Mr. Carl Icahn through IELP.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock, or the perception that these sales may occur, may materially adversely affect the price of our common stock and impede our ability to raise capital through the issuance of equity securities in the future. Of our outstanding shares of common stock, currently approximately 62% are beneficially owned by Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP.
Certain stockholders are contractually entitled, subject to certain exceptions, to exercise their demand registration rights to register their shares under the Securities Act of 1933. If this right is exercised, holders of any of our common stock subject to these agreements will be entitled to participate in such registration. By exercising their registration rights, and selling a large number of shares, these holders could cause the price of our common stock to decline. Approximately 11.2 million shares of common stock are covered by such registration rights.
Changes in accounting standards or inaccurate estimates or assumptions in the application of accounting policies could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. Some of these policies require use of estimates and assumptions that may affect the reported value of our assets or liabilities and financial results and are critical because they require management to make difficult, subjective, and complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain. Accounting standard setters and those who interpret the accounting standards, such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board and the SEC may amend or even reverse their previous interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply

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a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in the restatement of prior period financial statements.
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NASDAQ Global Select Market rules and therefore we are not subject to all of the NASDAQ Global Select Market corporate governance requirements.
As we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of the NASDAQ Global Select Market, we have elected, as permitted by those rules, not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. For example, our board of directors does not have a majority of independent directors and we do not have a nominating committee or compensation committee consisting of independent directors. As a result, our officers' compensation is not determined by our independent directors, and director nominees are not selected or recommended by a majority of independent directors.
Payments of cash dividends on our common stock may be made only at the discretion of our board of directors and may be restricted by North Dakota law.
Any decision to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our operating results, strategic plans, capital requirements, financial condition, provisions of our borrowing arrangements and other factors our board of directors considers relevant. Furthermore, North Dakota law imposes restrictions on our ability to pay dividends. Accordingly, we may not be able to continue to pay dividends in any given amount in the future, or at all.
We are governed by the North Dakota Publicly Traded Corporations Act. Interpretation and application of this act is scarce and such lack of predictability could be detrimental to our stockholders.
The North Dakota Publicly Traded Corporations Act, which we are governed by, was enacted in 2007 and, to our knowledge, no other companies are yet subject to its provisions and interpretations of its likely application are scarce. Although the North Dakota Publicly Traded Corporations Act specifically provides that its provisions must be liberally construed to protect and enhance the rights of stockholders in publicly traded corporations, this lack of predictability could be detrimental to our stockholders.
Unanticipated changes in our tax provisions, exposure to additional tax liabilities, or contests with the Internal Revenue Service regarding tax positions we may take could affect our financial condition and profitability.
Judgement is required to determine our provision for income taxes. Changes in estimates of projected future operating results, loss of deductibility of items, or recapture of prior deductions could result in significant increases to our tax expense and liabilities that could adversely affect our financial condition and profitability.
Further, we may take tax positions that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or other tax authorities may contest. If the IRS or other tax authorities successfully contest a position that we take, we may be required to pay additional taxes, interest or fines and any payments could have an effect on our results of operations or financial position.
We may be affected by climate change or market or regulatory responses to climate change.
Changes in laws, rules, and regulations, or actions by authorities under existing laws, rules, or regulations, to address greenhouse gas emissions and climate change could negatively impact our customers and business. For example, restrictions on emissions could significantly increase costs for our customers whose production processes require significant amounts of energy. Customers' increased costs could reduce their demand to purchase or lease our railcars. In addition, railcars in our fleet that are used to carry fossil fuels, such as petroleum, could see reduced demand if new government regulations mandate a reduction in fossil fuel consumption. Potential consequences of laws, rules, or regulations addressing climate change could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We are subject to cybersecurity risks and other cyber incidents resulting in disruption.
Threats to information technology systems associated with cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents or attacks continue to grow. We depend on information technology systems. In addition, we collect, process and retain sensitive and confidential employee and customer information in the normal course of business. Despite the security measures we have in place and any additional measures we may implement in the future, our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, could be vulnerable to security breaches, computer viruses, lost or misplaced data, programming errors, human errors, acts of vandalism or other events. Any steps we take to deter and mitigate these risks may not be successful and may cause us to incur increasing costs. Any disruption of our systems or security breach or event resulting in the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, whether by us directly or our third-party service providers, could damage our reputation, expose us to the risks of litigation and liability, disrupt our business or otherwise affect our results of operations.
Terrorist attacks could negatively impact our operations and profitability and may expose us to liability.

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Terrorist attacks may negatively affect our operations. Such attacks in the past have caused uncertainty in the global financial markets and economic instability in the U.S. and elsewhere, and further acts of terrorism, violence or war could similarly affect global financial markets and trade, as well as the industries in which we and our customers operate. In addition, terrorist attacks or hostilities may directly impact our physical facilities or those of our suppliers or customers, which could adversely impact our operations. These uncertainties could also adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing on terms acceptable to us, or at all.
It is also possible that our products, particularly railcars we produce, could be involved in a terrorist attack. Although the terms of our lease agreements require lessees to indemnify us and others against a broad spectrum of damages arising out of the use of the railcars, and we currently carry insurance to potentially offset losses in the event that customer indemnifications prove to be insufficient, we may not be fully protected from liability arising from a terrorist attack that involves our railcars. In addition, any terrorist attack involving any of our railcars may cause reputational damage, or other losses, which could materially and adversely affect our business.
National and international political developments in response to a terrorist attack or uncertainties related to potential attacks may cause governments to enact legislation or regulations directed toward improving the security of railcars, could cause decreased demand for railcars and result in downturns in the industries in which we or our customers operate. Depending on the severity, scope, and duration of these circumstances, the impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be material.
Our internal controls over financial accounting and reporting may not detect all errors or omissions in our financial statements.
If we fail to maintain adequate internal controls over financial accounting, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related regulations. Effective internal and disclosure controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and to operate successfully as a public company. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our reputation and operating results would be harmed. Although management has concluded that adequate internal control procedures are in place as of December 31, 2017, no system of internal control provides absolute assurance that the financial statements are accurate and free of error.
Item 1B: Unresolved Staff Comments
None
Item 2: Properties
Our headquarters is located in St. Charles, Missouri. We lease this facility pursuant to a lease agreement that expires December 31, 2024.
As of December 31, 2017, we owned manufacturing plants located in Paragould, Arkansas; Marmaduke, Arkansas; Jackson, Missouri; Kennett, Missouri; and Longview, Texas.
In addition, as of December 31, 2017, we operate eight railcar services facilities and eleven mobile units and mini shop facilities where we provide railcar repair and field services. Six of the railcar services facilities are owned and two are leased.
Item 3: Legal Proceedings
See Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements located in Part II, Item 8 of this report, which is incorporated by reference into this Part I, Item 3, for a description of the litigation, legal and administrative proceedings as of December 31, 2017.
Item 4: Mine Safety Disclosure
Not applicable.
PART II
Item 5: Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information

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Our common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol ARII. There were approximately 14 holders of record of common stock as of February 20, 2018.
The following table shows the high and low closing sales prices per share of our common stock by quarter for the period from January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2017:
 
 
Prices
 
High
 
Low
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
 
 
Quarter ended March 31, 2017
$
48.60

 
$
38.82

Quarter ended June 30, 2017
43.72

 
34.64

Quarter ended September 30, 2017
39.25

 
34.58

Quarter ended December 31, 2017
41.64

 
36.44

 
 
High
 
Low
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
Quarter ended March 31, 2016
$
44.13

 
$
35.79

Quarter ended June 30, 2016
43.73

 
35.94

Quarter ended September 30, 2016
42.90

 
37.85

Quarter ended December 31, 2016
47.38

 
35.52

Dividends
During 2017 and 2016, we declared and paid cash dividends of $0.40 per share of our common stock each quarter, totaling $30.5 million and $31.0 million, respectively. Any future dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our operating results, strategic plans, capital requirements, financial condition, provisions of any of our borrowing arrangements, applicable law and other factors our board of directors considers relevant.
Stock Repurchase Program
This table provides information with respect to purchases by the Company of shares of its common stock on the open market as part of the Stock Repurchase Program during the quarter ended December 31, 2017:
Period
 
Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased As Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plan
October 1, 2017 through October 31, 2017
 

 
$

 

 
$
163,975,779

November 1, 2017 through November 30, 2017
 

 
$

 

 
$
163,975,779

December 1, 2017 through December 31, 2017
 

 
$

 

 
$
163,975,779

Total
 

 
 
 

 
 

(1)
On July 28, 2015, our board of directors authorized the repurchase of up to $250.0 million of our outstanding common stock (the Stock Repurchase Program), with the timing and amount of stock repurchases, if any, determined based upon our evaluation of market conditions and other factors. The Stock Repurchase Program will end upon the earlier of the date on which it is terminated by the Board or when all authorized repurchases are completed. The Stock Repurchase Program may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time and we have no obligation to repurchase any amount of our common stock under the Stock Repurchase Program. See Note 16, Stock Repurchase Program, to the consolidated financial statements located in Part II, Item 8 of this report, which is incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 5, for further details of our Stock Repurchase Program.
Stock Performance Graph

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The following Stock Performance Graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), each as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
The following graph illustrates the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock during the five year period ended December 31, 2017, and compares it with the cumulative total return on the NASDAQ Composite Index and DJ Transportation Index. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2012 in our common stock and in each of the foregoing indices and assumes reinvestment of dividends, if any. The performance shown is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12081284&doc=15
Item 6: Selected Consolidated Financial Data
The following table sets forth our selected consolidated financial data for the periods presented. The consolidated statements of operations and cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this annual report. The consolidated statements of operations and cash flow data for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 are derived from our historical consolidated financial statements not included in this filing. See “Index to Consolidated Financial Statements.”

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Years ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015 1
 
2014 1
 
2013 1
 
 
 
 
 
As Adjusted
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Consolidated statement of operations data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing 2
$
264,557

 
$
429,774

 
$
700,061

 
$
600,326

 
$
646,100

Railcar leasing 3
135,130

 
132,245

 
116,714

 
65,108

 
31,871

Railcar services 4
77,156

 
77,114

 
72,561

 
67,572

 
72,621

Total revenues
476,843

 
639,133

 
889,336

 
733,006

 
750,592

Cost of revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing
(247,974
)
 
(360,755
)
 
(539,136
)
 
(455,547
)
 
(503,178
)
Other operating loss
(417
)
 
(12,288
)
 

 

 

Railcar leasing
(46,260
)
 
(41,732
)
 
(36,161
)
 
(23,733
)
 
(13,394
)
Railcar services
(64,703
)
 
(62,178
)
 
(56,492
)
 
(54,386
)
 
(55,408
)
Total cost of revenues
(359,354
)
 
(476,953
)
 
(631,789
)
 
(533,666
)
 
(571,980
)
Gross profit
117,489

 
162,180

 
257,547

 
199,340

 
178,612

Selling, general and administrative
(36,892
)
 
(32,343
)
 
(30,866
)
 
(29,420
)
 
(27,705
)
Net gains on disposition of leased railcars
115

 
272

 
25

 
138

 

Earnings from operations
80,712

 
130,109

 
226,706

 
170,058

 
150,907

Interest income 5
1,621

 
1,785

 
2,164

 
2,517

 
2,716

Interest expense
(21,854
)
 
(22,803
)
 
(21,801
)
 
(7,622
)
 
(7,337
)
Loss on debt extinguishment

 

 
(2,126
)
 
(1,896
)
 
(392
)
Other income (loss)
3,510

 
185

 
(11
)
 
(20
)
 
2,037

Earnings (loss) from joint ventures
2,228

 
4,924

 
5,812

 
1,570

 
(8,595
)
Earnings before income taxes
66,217

 
114,200

 
210,744

 
164,607

 
139,336

Income tax expense
75,960

 
(41,537
)
 
(77,291
)
 
(65,074
)
 
(52,440
)
Net earnings
$
142,177

 
$
72,663

 
$
133,453

 
$
99,533

 
$
86,896

Net earnings per common share—basic & diluted
$
7.45

 
$
3.74

 
$
6.39

 
$
4.66

 
$
4.07

Weighted average common shares outstanding—basic & diluted
19,084

 
19,439

 
20,883

 
21,352

 
21,352

Dividends declared per common share
$
1.60

 
$
1.60

 
$
1.60

 
$
1.60

 
$
1.00

Consolidated balance sheet data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
100,244

 
$
178,571

 
$
298,064

 
$
88,109

 
$
97,252

Net working capital
168,625

 
239,558

 
273,337

 
106,688

 
148,122

Property, plant and equipment, net
162,535

 
177,051

 
176,311

 
160,787

 
159,375

Railcars on leases, net
1,036,414

 
908,010

 
848,717

 
663,315

 
372,551

Total assets
1,473,426

 
1,456,250

 
1,525,074

 
1,190,261

 
823,583

Total liabilities
809,892

 
905,980

 
988,777

 
694,845

 
389,681

Total stockholders' equity
663,534

 
550,270

 
536,297

 
495,416

 
433,902

Consolidated cash flow data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
131,546

 
$
180,503

 
$
264,503

 
$
136,799

 
$
164,766

Net cash used in investing activities
(153,984
)
 
(114,738
)
 
(240,638
)
 
(323,200
)
 
(166,376
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(56,048
)
 
(185,206
)
 
186,399

 
177,479

 
(106,045
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
159

 
(52
)
 
(309
)
 
(221
)
 
(138
)

You should read this information together with “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
(1)
Financial data for 2013-2015 has been adjusted to reflect our change in accounting for debt issuance costs with the adoption of ASU 2015-03, Interest-Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs.
(2)
Includes revenues from affiliates of $0.3 million, $0.8 million, $269.6 million, $245.9 million, and $250.5 million in 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
(3)
Includes revenues from affiliates of $1.0 million and $0.3 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively, and zero in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

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(4)
Includes revenues from affiliates of $12.0 million, $26.8 million, $24.9 million, $19.3 million, and $17.2 million in 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
(5)
Includes income from related parties of $1.2 million, $1.7 million, $2.1 million, $2.4 million, and $2.7 million in 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Item 7: Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion in conjunction with “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that are based on management's current expectations, estimates and projections about our business and operations. Our actual results may differ materially from those currently anticipated and expressed in such forward-looking statements, including as a result of the factors we describe under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” appearing at the beginning of this report and “Risk Factors” set forth in Item 1A of this report.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
We are a prominent North American designer and manufacturer of hopper and tank railcars, which are currently the two largest markets within the railcar industry. We provide our railcar customers with integrated solutions through a comprehensive set of high quality products and related services offered by our three reportable segments: manufacturing, railcar leasing and railcar services. Manufacturing consists of railcar manufacturing and railcar and industrial component manufacturing. We use certain of these components in our own railcar manufacturing and/or sell certain of these products to third parties. Railcar leasing consists of railcars manufactured by us and leased to third parties under operating leases. Railcar services consist of railcar repair, engineering and field services, for our fleet and for other railcar owners. Our business model combines manufacturing, railcar leasing and railcar services and is designed to support the industry with complete railcar solutions over the full life cycle of a railcar.
Our results for 2017, outside of the impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, as discussed below, reflect the continued downturn in the North American railcar market cycle. As the industry is facing continued lower levels of railcar loadings and an oversupply of railcars in the marketplace, a significant number of railcars remain in storage, resulting in lower fleet utilization for much of the industry. Both the tank and hopper railcar markets have remained soft as demand for orders, given the oversupply within the railcar market, has remained focused on smaller orders of more specialized railcars, and pricing has been very competitive for the orders that are available. The tank railcar market has been impacted more heavily than most other markets as a result of the over saturation of that market in recent years.
Our total orders for 2017 amounted to 2,419 railcars, up 54% over 2016 orders. As of December 31, 2017, we had a backlog of 1,940 railcars, 389 of which will go to our lease fleet. Subsequent to December 31, 2017, we have received orders for approximately 2,000 railcars, primarily for direct sale for both tank and hopper railcars, which significantly increased our backlog from the balance at December 31, 2017. These orders received in early 2018 were for customers' delivery needs both in 2018 and 2019. While inquiry levels have moderately improved recently, we expect 2018 industry shipments to be in line with 2017, consistent with industry forecasts. We continue working with customers on opportunities to meet their railcar needs for the second half of 2018 and beyond.
Our flexible workforce and knowledgeable management team provide us with the ability to adjust our production rates in an effort to align them with industry trends. Even at lower production levels, we continue to efficiently produce high quality hopper and tank railcars. In 2017, we shipped 4,292 railcars, which is 11.2% lower than our shipments in 2016. We cannot assure you that hopper or tank railcar demand will maintain its current pace, that demand for any railcar types or railcar services will improve, or that our railcar backlog, orders, shipments, pricing, lease utilization, and/or lease rates will track industry-wide trends. Railcars built for our lease fleet represented 43.7% of our total railcar shipments in 2017 compared to 18.9% in 2016. Shipments and orders for railcars on long-term leases not only help us to maintain a steady level of production during the manufacturing period, but also help provide future cash flows while the lease fleet continues to maintain a strong utilization rate. Because revenues and earnings related to leased railcars are recognized over the life of a lease, our quarterly and annual results may vary depending on the mix of lease versus direct sale railcars that we ship during a given period.
Our consolidated operating margin of 16.9% in 2017, while down from 20.4% in 2016, continues to be supported by the growth of and our commitment to our railcar leasing segment.
Our current liquidity of $300.2 million, including $200.0 million available under our revolving credit facility, provides us with the ability to further grow our lease fleet, as demand may dictate. Since entering the railcar leasing business in 2011, we have strategically grown our lease fleet to 13,138 railcars at December 31, 2017. Adding railcars to our lease fleet remains a

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strategic priority for us, as we target key customers and key railcar types to meet our customers' needs. Although the industry is experiencing declining lease rates as a result of the softness in the overall market, the expiration dates of our operating leases for railcars in our lease fleet are spread over the next several years, which helps mitigate the risks of renewing leases at lower rates or any inability we may experience in renewing leases or re-leasing these railcars.
Our railcar services business continues to support the industry, offering repair services over the railcar life cycle. Throughout 2017, in addition to regular repair and maintenance services, our repair network has been focused on inspecting railcars that we and our customers own that are subject to inspection, testing and, if necessary, repair, as part of the FRA Directive. Given the capacity available due to the weak demand for new tank railcars, our tank railcar manufacturing facility provides us additional flexibility not only to produce railcars, but also to perform traditional repair and retrofit services in a production line set-up.
The 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the 2017 Tax Act) made significant changes to U.S. federal income tax laws. Changes include, but are not limited to: a federal corporate tax rate decrease from 35% to 21%, effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017; the transition of U.S international taxation from a worldwide tax system to a territorial system; and a one-time transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of cumulative foreign earnings as of December 31, 2017. For 2017, we had a net income tax benefit of $76.0 million, including a one-time tax benefit of approximately $107.3 million due to changes as the 2017 Tax Act was signed into law in December 2017, resulting in an effective tax rate of (114.7)%, compared to income tax expense of $41.5 million and an effective tax rate of 36.4% in 2016. See “Income tax expense” and “Critical Accounting Estimates and Policies-Income Taxes,” below, and Note 12 of our consolidated financial statements, for additional information.
We believe our integrated business model of providing complete life cycle solutions for the railcar industry under the direction of our experienced management team provides a solid foundation of knowledge that we will leverage as we expect to continue to grow our railcar leasing business as demand dictates. We believe our approach, which was further enhanced in 2017 with additions to our sales force and our lease fleet management team, will help us continue to be competitive in the North American railcar market, providing our customers opportunities to purchase or lease railcars from us. Our business continues to use synergies from our manufacturing, railcar leasing and railcar services segments. Our structure as a manufacturer, lessor and railcar services provider provides us with numerous competitive advantages, including increased flexibility and lower costs, relative to other lessors in the industry.
FRA Directive
As previously disclosed, on September 30, 2016, the FRA issued Railworthiness Directive (RWD) No. 2016-01 (the Original Directive), as discussed in Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements located in Part II, Item 8 of this report. The Original Directive addressed, among other things, certain welding practices in one weld area in specified DOT 111 tank railcars manufactured between 2009 and 2015 by ARI and ACF Industries, LLC (ACF). ACF is an affiliate of Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP. We met and corresponded with the FRA following the issuance of the Original Directive to express our concerns with the Original Directive and its impact on ARI, as well as the industry as a whole.
On November 18, 2016 (the Issuance Date), the FRA issued RWD No. 2016-01 [Revised] (the Revised Directive). The Revised Directive changed and superseded the Original Directive in several ways.
The Revised Directive required owners to identify their subject tank railcars and then from that population identify the 15% of subject tank railcars then in hazardous materials service with the highest mileage in each tank railcar owner’s fleet. Visual inspection of each of the subject tank railcars is required by the railcar operator prior to putting any railcar into service. Owners were required to ensure appropriate inspection, testing and repairs, if needed, within twelve months of the Issuance Date for the 15% of their subject tank railcars identified to be in hazardous materials service with the highest mileage. The FRA reserved the right to impose additional test and inspection requirements for the remaining tank railcars subject to the Revised Directive. The FRA also reserved the right to seek civil penalties or to take any other appropriate enforcement action for violations of the Federal Hazardous Materials Regulations that have occurred.
Although the Revised Directive addressed some of our concerns and clarified certain requirements of the Original Directive, we identified significant issues with the Revised Directive. As a result, in December 2016, we sought judicial review of and relief from the Revised Directive by filing a petition for review against the FRA in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
On August 17, 2017, we entered into a settlement agreement with the FRA, which covered the subject railcars owned by us and certain of our affiliates. This settlement agreement, among other things, extended the deadline for ARI to complete the inspection, testing and repairs, if needed, for the 15% identified railcars to December 31, 2017.  Adding clarity regarding

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certain unknown requirements referenced in the Revised Directive, under the settlement agreement, we are required to inspect, test, and if necessary repair the remaining 85% subject tank railcars at the next tank railcar qualification, scheduled routine or regular maintenance, shopping or repair event, but no later than December, 31, 2025. However, the agreement permits us to: (i) if the FRA does not impose a similar requirement by July 31, 2018 on other owners’ railcars subject to the Revised Directive, suspend compliance with this requirement until such time as the FRA imposes requirements on all 85% railcars subject to the Revised Directive, and (ii) elect to be governed by any different requirements later imposed by the FRA on other owners’ railcars subject to the Revised Directive. In addition, the settlement agreement also provides that railcars owned by ARI are no longer required to have a surface inspection performed when the railcars are being inspected pursuant to the Revised Directive. Finally, as part of the settlement agreement, ARI dismissed its lawsuit against the FRA.
We inspected, tested, and if necessary, repaired all of our 15% identified railcars as required pursuant to the settlement agreement prior to December 31, 2017.
In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, as of December 31, 2017, our remaining loss contingency reserve of $8.8 million covers our probable and estimable liabilities with respect to our response to the Revised Directive, taking into account currently available information and our contractual obligations in our capacity as both a manufacturer and owner of railcars subject to the Revised Directive.
It is reasonably possible that a loss exists in excess of the amount accrued by the Company. However, the amount of potential costs and expenses expected to be incurred for compliance with the Revised Directive in excess of the remaining loss contingency reserve of $8.8 million cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Consolidated Results
The following table summarizes our historical operations for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of operating results that may be expected in the future.  
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2017 vs 2016
 
2016 vs 2015
 
2017 vs 2016
 
2016 vs 2015
 
(in thousands)
 
(in %'s)
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing
$
264,557

 
$
429,774

 
$
700,061

 
$
(165,217
)
 
$
(270,287
)
 
(38.4
)
 
(38.6
)
Railcar leasing
135,130

 
132,245

 
116,714

 
2,885

 
15,531

 
2.2

 
13.3

Railcar services
77,156

 
77,114

 
72,561

 
42

 
4,553

 
0.1

 
6.3

Total revenues
476,843

 
639,133

 
889,336

 
(162,290
)
 
(250,203
)
 
(25.4
)
 
(28.1
)
Cost of revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing
(247,974
)
 
(360,755
)
 
(539,136
)
 
112,781

 
178,381

 
(31.3
)
 
(33.1
)
Other operating loss
(417
)
 
(12,288
)
 

 
11,871

 
(12,288
)
 
*

 
*

Railcar leasing
(46,260
)
 
(41,732
)
 
(36,161
)
 
(4,528
)
 
(5,571
)
 
10.9

 
15.4

Railcar services
(64,703
)
 
(62,178
)
 
(56,492
)
 
(2,525
)
 
(5,686
)
 
4.1

 
10.1

Total cost of revenues
(359,354
)
 
(476,953
)
 
(631,789
)
 
117,599

 
154,836

 
(24.7
)
 
(24.5
)
Selling, general and administrative
(36,892
)
 
(32,343
)
 
(30,866
)
 
(4,549
)
 
(1,477
)
 
14.1

 
4.8

Net gains on disposition of leased railcars
115

 
272

 
25

 
(157
)
 
247

 
*

 
*

Earnings from operations
80,712

 
130,109

 
226,706

 
(49,397
)
 
(96,597
)
 
(38.0
)
 
(42.6
)
*-
Not meaningful
Revenues
2017 vs. 2016
Our total consolidated revenues for 2017 decreased by 25.4% compared to 2016. This decrease was primarily due to decreased revenues in our manufacturing segment, partially offset by increased revenues in our railcar leasing and railcar services segments. During 2017, we shipped 2,418 direct sale railcars, which excludes 1,874 railcars (43.7% of total shipments) built for

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our lease fleet, compared to 3,922 direct sale railcars during 2016, which excludes 914 railcars (18.9% of total shipments) built for our lease fleet.
Manufacturing revenues decreased in 2017 by 38.4% compared to 2016. The decrease in manufacturing revenues was due to a decrease of 40.3% driven by multiple factors, including 1,504 fewer railcar shipments for direct sale for both hopper and tank railcars in 2017 compared to 2016, as a higher percentage of our railcar shipments went to our lease fleet, combined with more competitive pricing on both hopper and tank railcars, and a higher mix of hopper railcars for direct sale during 2017 compared to 2016. Hopper railcars typically have lower selling prices compared to tank railcars due to less material and labor content. The decrease in manufacturing revenues due to lower volumes, competitive pricing and product mix was partially offset by an increase of 1.9% due to an increase in revenue from certain material cost changes that we generally pass through to customers, as discussed above.
Railcar leasing revenues for 2017 increased by 2.2% compared to 2016. This increase was primarily due to an increase in the number of railcars on lease, partially offset by a decline in weighted average lease rates for both new railcars for lease and lease renewals compared to 2016. The lease fleet totaled 13,138 railcars at the end of 2017, compared to 11,268 railcars at the end of 2016.
Railcar services revenues for 2017 increased by 0.1% compared to 2016. This increase was primarily driven by additional repair volume due to added capacity for railcar services at our Marmaduke tank railcar production facility, partially offset by performing more intercompany services related to the FRA's Revised Directive, for which the intercompany revenue is eliminated in consolidation.
2016 vs. 2015
Our total consolidated revenues for 2016 decreased by 28.1% compared to 2015. This decrease was due to decreased revenues in our manufacturing segment, partially offset by increased revenues in our railcar leasing and railcar services segments. During 2016, we shipped 3,922 direct sale railcars, which excludes 914 railcars (18.9% of total shipments) built for our lease fleet, compared to 6,270 direct sale railcars during 2015, which excludes 2,633 railcars (29.6% of total shipments) built for our lease fleet.
Manufacturing revenues decreased in 2016 by 38.6% compared to 2015. Given the decrease in tank railcar demand and a shift in production to a larger mix of specialty railcars, tank railcar shipments decreased. Hopper railcar production also shifted to a larger mix of specialty railcars and demand for that market softened, resulting in fewer hopper railcar shipments. The decrease in manufacturing revenues was due to a decrease of 37.9% driven by 2,348 fewer railcar shipments for direct sale with average selling prices remaining relatively flat given a higher mix of more specialty hopper railcars in 2016 with higher average selling prices as compared to 2015, partially offset by fewer tank railcars sold, which generally have higher selling prices than hopper railcars, combined with more competitive pricing on both hopper and tank railcars. The remaining decrease of 0.7% was due to a decrease in revenue from certain material cost changes that we generally pass through to customers, as discussed above.
Railcar leasing revenues for 2016 increased by 13.3% compared to 2015. This increase was primarily due to an increase in the number of railcars on lease, partially offset by a slight decline in weighted average lease rates compared to 2015. The lease fleet totaled 11,268 railcars at the end of 2016, compared to 10,362 railcars at the end of 2015.
Railcar services revenues for 2016 increased by 6.3% compared to 2015. This increase was primarily due to an increase in demand and volume associated with additional capacity resulting from our expansion projects that continued to ramp up in 2016.
Cost of Revenues
2017 vs. 2016
Our total consolidated cost of revenues for 2017 decreased by 24.7% compared to 2016 due to decreased cost of revenues in our manufacturing segment that were partially offset by the loss contingency recognized during 2016 related to the Revised Directive. The overall decrease from the manufacturing segment was partially offset by an increase in our cost of revenues for our railcar leasing and railcar services segments.
Cost of revenues (excluding the other operating loss attributable to the manufacturing segment, as discussed below) decreased for our manufacturing segment by 31.3%, due to a decrease of 33.5% driven by lower direct sale railcar shipments, as discussed above, higher warranty costs, and higher costs associated with the lower volumes of railcars, which requires us to adjust our production schedules and monitor and control overhead spending and employee levels. This decrease was partially

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offset by an increase of 2.2% driven by higher material costs for key components and steel, which is also reflected as an increase in selling prices as our practice is to generally pass changes in these costs through to the customer, as discussed above.
Also included as a component of manufacturing cost of revenues was the other operating loss of $0.4 million in 2017, which represents updated assumptions surrounding our estimates on the loss contingency reserve. This was compared to $12.3 million of other operating loss recognized in 2016 to cover our probable and estimable liabilities, with respect to our response to the Revised Directive. Both these amounts take into account currently available information at both December 31, 2017 and 2016 and our contractual obligations in our capacity as both a manufacturer and lessor of railcars subject to the Revised Directive. For further discussion, refer to the Executive Summary above and Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements located in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
Cost of revenues for our railcar leasing segment increased for 2017 by 10.9% compared to 2016, primarily as a result of an increase in the number of railcars in our lease fleet, as discussed above, and increased maintenance costs associated with both our growing lease fleet and certain railcars being reassigned to other lessees.
Cost of revenues for our railcar services segment increased for 2017 by 4.1% compared to 2016, primarily due to an increase in repair volume and an unfavorable mix of repair work causing inefficiencies at certain repair facilities during 2017.
2016 vs. 2015
Our total consolidated cost of revenues for 2016 decreased by 24.5% compared to 2015 due to decreased cost of revenues in our manufacturing segment that were partially offset by the loss contingency recognized during 2016 related to the Revised Directive. The overall decrease from the manufacturing segment was partially offset by an increase in our cost of revenues for our railcar leasing and railcar services segments.
Cost of revenues (excluding the other operating loss attributable to the manufacturing segment, as discussed below) decreased for our manufacturing segment by 33.1%, due to a decrease of 32.2% driven by lower direct sale railcar shipments, as discussed above, partially offset by increased costs associated with the production of more specialized hopper railcars, as discussed above, and higher costs associated with the lower volumes of tank railcars, which requires us to adjust our production schedules and output of new tank railcars and monitor and control overhead spending and employee levels. The remaining decrease of 0.9% was driven by lower material costs for key components and steel, which is also reflected as a decrease in selling prices as our practice is to generally pass changes in these costs through to the customer, as discussed above.
Also included as a component of manufacturing cost of revenues was the other operating loss of $12.3 million, which represents a loss contingency recognized during 2016 to cover our probable and estimable liabilities, as of December 31, 2016, with respect to our response to the Revised Directive, taking into account currently available information at that time and our contractual obligations in our capacity as both a manufacturer and lessor of railcars subject to the Revised Directive.
Cost of revenues for our railcar leasing segment increased for 2016 by 15.4% compared to 2015, primarily as a result of an increase in the number of railcars in our lease fleet, as discussed above.
Cost of revenues for our railcar services segment increased for 2016 by 10.1% compared to 2015, primarily due to an increase in demand, volume and costs associated with the ramp up of operations at our recently completed expansion projects, as well as higher depreciation expenses.
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Our total selling, general and administrative expenses increased by 14.1% in 2017 compared to 2016. This $4.5 million increase was primarily due to increased compensation costs relating to additional staff hired to increase our sales and marketing team and other supporting groups in connection with transitioning our lease fleet management in-house, higher legal expenses, and higher bad debt expense, partially offset by decreased stock-based compensation expense and decreased consulting expenses. Prior to the ARL Sale, certain expenses related to the management of our lease fleet, including the management fee paid to ARL, were recorded within cost of sales. Subsequent to the ARL Sale, as staff and other related expenses have been brought in-house, the Company's selling, general and administrative expenses related to our leasing business have increased, but our fleet management expenses in total have decreased due to cost savings related to railcar management fees that were previously paid to ARL.
Our total selling, general and administrative expenses increased by 4.8% in 2016 compared to 2015. This $1.5 million increase was primarily due to increased consulting expenses and higher depreciation, partially offset by lower bad debt and incentive compensation expense.

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Interest expense
Interest expense for 2017 was $21.9 million compared to $22.8 million in 2016. This decrease was primarily driven by a lower average debt balance during 2017 compared to 2016.
Interest expense for 2016 was $22.8 million compared to $21.8 million in 2015. This increase was primarily driven by a higher average debt balance during 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to the use of our revolving loan facility at the beginning of 2016.
Other Income
Other income for 2017 was $3.5 million compared to $0.2 million in 2016. This increase was primarily driven by gains realized on the sale of short-term investments and on gains generated from contractual damages arising from a customer event of default. Other income for 2015 was immaterial.
Loss on debt extinguishment
During 2015, we refinanced our lease fleet financing facilities, resulting in net proceeds of $211.6 million under a private placement of secured railcar equipment notes. This refinancing resulted in a $2.1 million non-cash charge related to the accelerated write-off of the remainder of deferred debt issuance costs incurred in connection with the 2014 lease fleet financing facilities.
Earnings (Loss) from joint ventures 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$ Increase (Decrease)
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2017 vs 2016
 
2016 vs 2015
 
(in thousands)
Ohio Castings
$
(1,275
)
 
$
(299
)
 
$
582

 
$
(976
)
 
$
(881
)
Axis
3,503

 
5,223

 
5,230

 
$
(1,720
)
 
$
(7
)
Total Earnings from Joint Ventures
$
2,228

 
$
4,924

 
$
5,812

 
$
(2,696
)
 
$
(888
)
Our joint venture earnings were $2.2 million in 2017 compared to $4.9 million in 2016. Our Ohio Castings joint venture experienced ramp down costs in connection with the idling of the facility in early 2017 and continues to run at a loss due to being idled. We expect that Ohio Castings will remain idle through most, if not all, of 2018, subject to re-evaluation based on changes in future demand expectations. We do not expect the idling to have a significant impact to our operations or supply chain, and we expect to fulfill our castings requirements from third party vendors.
Earnings from our Axis joint venture declined during 2017 compared to 2016 due to lower production levels in line with a decline in industry railcar shipments. Even with its lower production levels, Axis continues to produce positive results.
Our joint venture earnings were $4.9 million in 2016 compared to $5.8 million in 2015. Our Ohio Castings joint venture experienced decreased sales in 2016 due to a ramp down of production from the high levels experienced in 2015 to more historical levels in an effort to align the joint venture's production level with industry demand.
Our Axis joint venture experienced lower production levels in 2016 in line with industry demand, but even with lower production levels earnings remained comparable to 2015, reflecting improved efficiencies and better profitability.
Income tax expense
For 2017, we recognized an income tax benefit of $76.0 million and an effective tax rate of (114.7)% compared to income tax expense of $41.5 million and an effective tax rate of 36.4% in 2016. The 2017 Tax Act reduced the 2017 effective tax rate by 162.0% and resulted in total incremental provisional tax benefits of $107.3 million, primarily driven by a benefit of $107.9 million related to the re-measurement of our deferred tax assets and liabilities for the reduction in the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, partially offset by the one-time transition tax expense of $0.6 million. Our 2017 effective tax rate was also impacted by a significant change in our state income tax rate due to updates to our current year state apportionment percentages, the recognition of a valuation allowance against a capital loss, and additional taxes owed as our current year net operating loss was carried back and applied against income from prior years resulting in a reduction of our Domestic Production Activities Deduction in those prior years.

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Income tax expense in 2016 was $41.5 million compared to $77.3 million in 2015. This decrease was a result of lower earnings from operations as our effective tax rate remained relatively flat at 36.4% and 36.7% of our earnings before income taxes in 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Segment Results
The table below summarizes our historical revenues, earnings from operations and operating margin for the periods shown. Intersegment revenues are accounted for as if sales were to third parties. Operating margin is defined as total segment earnings from operations as a percentage of total segment revenues. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of operating results that may be expected in the future. Refer to Note 19 of the consolidated financial statements for further discussions of our segments.
 
Revenues
 
External
 
Intersegment
 
Total
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
(in thousands)
 
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing
$
264,557

 
$
186,138

 
$
450,695

 
$
(74,238
)
 
(14.1
)
Railcar leasing
135,130

 

 
135,130

 
2,885

 
2.2

Railcar services
77,156

 
5,653

 
82,809

 
3,888

 
4.9

Eliminations


 
(191,791
)
 
(191,791
)
 
(94,825
)
 
97.8

Total Consolidated
$
476,843

 
$

 
$
476,843

 
$
(162,290
)
 
(25.4
)
2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing
$
429,774

 
$
95,159

 
$
524,933

 
$
(494,527
)
 
(48.5
)
Railcar leasing
132,245

 

 
132,245

 
15,531

 
13.3

Railcar services
77,114

 
1,807

 
78,921

 
4,424

 
5.9

Eliminations


 
(96,966
)
 
(96,966
)
 
224,369

 
(69.8
)
Total Consolidated
$
639,133

 
$

 
$
639,133

 
$
(250,203
)
 
(28.1
)
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing
$
700,061

 
$
319,399

 
$
1,019,460

 
 
 
 
Railcar leasing
116,714

 

 
116,714

 
 
 
 
Railcar services
72,561

 
1,936

 
74,497

 
 
 
 
Eliminations

 
(321,335
)
 
(321,335
)
 
 
 
 
Total Consolidated
$
889,336

 
$

 
$
889,336

 
 
 
 

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Earnings (Loss) from Operations
 
 
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2017 vs 2016
 
2016 vs 2015
2017 vs 2016
 
2016 vs 2015
 
(in thousands)
(in %'s)
Manufacturing
$
21,034

 
$
56,736

 
$
240,891

 
$
(35,702
)
 
$
(184,155
)
(62.9
)
 
(76.4
)
Railcar leasing
74,985

 
79,084

 
70,344

 
(4,099
)
 
8,740

(5.2
)
 
12.4

Railcar services
9,462

 
11,421

 
13,898

 
(1,959
)
 
(2,477
)
(17.2
)
 
(17.8
)
Corporate
(18,648
)
 
(18,249
)
 
(18,779
)
 
(399
)
 
530

2.2

 
(2.8
)
Eliminations
(6,121
)
 
1,117

 
(79,648
)
 
(7,238
)
 
80,765

(648.0
)
 
(101.4
)
Total Consolidated
$
80,712

 
$
130,109

 
$
226,706

 
$
(49,397
)
 
$
(96,597
)
(38.0
)
 
(42.6
)
Operating Margin 
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Manufacturing
4.7
%
 
10.8
%
 
23.6
%
Railcar leasing
55.5
%
 
59.8
%
 
60.3
%
Railcar services
11.4
%
 
14.5
%
 
18.7
%
Total Consolidated
16.9
%
 
20.4
%
 
25.5
%
Manufacturing
2017 vs. 2016
Our manufacturing segment revenues for 2017, including an estimate of revenues for railcars built for our lease fleet, decreased by $74.2 million compared to 2016. This decrease resulted from a lower volume of shipments, as discussed below, and an overall decrease in average selling prices due to more competitive pricing on both hopper and tank railcars.
During 2017, we shipped 4,292 railcars, including 1,874 railcars built for our lease fleet, compared to 4,836 railcars, including 914 railcars built for our lease fleet, during 2016.
Manufacturing segment revenues for 2017 included estimated revenues of $186.1 million relating to railcars built for our lease fleet, compared to $94.3 million for 2016. This increase in estimated revenues related to railcars built for our lease fleet was due to increased quantities of both hopper and tank railcars shipped for lease. Such revenues are based on an estimated fair market value of the leased railcars as if they had been sold to a third party and are eliminated in consolidation. Revenues from railcars manufactured for our railcar leasing segment are not recognized in consolidated revenues as railcar sales, but rather lease revenues are recognized over the term of the lease in accordance with the monthly lease revenues. Railcars built for the lease fleet represented 43.7% of our railcar shipments for 2017 compared to 18.9% for 2016.
From time to time, we manufacture and sell railcars to companies controlled by Mr. Carl Icahn, our principal beneficial stockholder through IELP, including, but not limited to, ARL, prior to its sale to an unaffiliated third party effective as of June 1, 2017 (collectively, the IELP Entities). Our manufacturing segment had no direct sales of railcars to the IELP Entities during 2017, primarily due to our focus on growing our own lease fleet as industry demand has softened. During 2016, we also had zero direct sales of railcars to IELP Entities. In addition, we recorded revenues of $0.3 million from ACF for royalties and profits on railcars sold by ACF and for sales of railcar components to ACF in 2017, compared to $0.7 million in 2016. ACF is also affiliated with Mr. Carl Icahn. Total manufacturing segment revenues from our affiliates represent 0.1% of our total consolidated revenues in 2017, compared to 0.1% in 2016.
Earnings from operations for our manufacturing segment, which include an allocation of selling, general and administrative costs, as well as estimated profit for railcars manufactured for our railcar leasing segment, decreased by $35.7 million for 2017 compared to 2016. Estimated profit on railcars built for our lease fleet, which is eliminated in consolidation, was $16.3 million for 2017 compared to $9.5 million for 2016, and is based on an estimated fair market value of revenues as if the railcars had been sold to a third party, less the cost to manufacture.
Operating margin from our manufacturing segment decreased to 4.7% in 2017 from 10.8% in 2016. These decreases for both earnings from operations and operating margin were primarily due to the lower number of railcars shipped during 2017, more competitive pricing for both tank and hopper railcars, higher warranty costs, and the impact of increased costs due to operating at lower production levels. These factors were partially offset by the impact of the loss contingency related to the Revised Directive recognized by the manufacturing segment of $12.3 million during 2016, as discussed above.

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2016 vs. 2015
Our manufacturing segment revenues for 2016, including an estimate of revenues for railcars built for our lease fleet, decreased by $494.5 million compared to 2015. This decrease resulted from a lower volume of shipments, as discussed below, an overall decrease in average selling prices with a higher mix of hopper railcars, which generally sell at lower prices than tank railcars due to less material and labor content, more competitive pricing on both hopper and tank railcars, and a decrease in revenue from material cost changes that we generally pass through to customers, as discussed in 'Consolidated Results' above.
During 2016, we shipped 4,836 railcars, including 914 railcars built for our lease fleet, compared to 8,903 railcars, including 2,633 railcars built for our lease fleet during 2015. Manufacturing segment revenues for 2016 included estimated revenues of $94.3 million relating to railcars built for our lease fleet, compared to $319.4 million for 2015. This decrease in estimated revenues related to railcars built for our lease fleet was due to lower quantities of both hopper and tank railcars shipped for lease. Such revenues are based on an estimated fair market value of the leased railcars as if they had been sold to a third party, and are eliminated in consolidation. Revenues from railcars manufactured for our railcar leasing segment are not recognized in consolidated revenues as railcar sales, but rather lease revenues are recognized over the term of the lease in accordance with the monthly lease revenues. Railcars built for the lease fleet represented 18.9% of our railcar shipments for 2016 compared to 29.6% for 2015.
From time to time, we manufacture and sell railcars to the IELP Entities. Our manufacturing segment had no direct sales of railcars to the IELP Entities during 2016, primarily due to our focus on growing our own lease fleet as industry demand softened. During 2015, we had $259.9 million of direct sales of railcars to IELP Entities. In addition, we recorded $0.7 million of revenue from ACF for royalties and profits on railcars sold by ACF and for sales of railcar components to ACF in 2016, compared to $9.6 million in 2015. ACF is also affiliated with Mr. Carl Icahn. Total manufacturing segment revenues from our affiliates represent 0.1% of our total consolidated revenues in 2016, compared to 30.3% in 2015.
Earnings from operations for our manufacturing segment, which include an allocation of selling, general and administrative costs, as well as estimated profit for railcars manufactured for our railcar leasing segment, decreased by $184.2 million for 2016 compared to 2015. Estimated profit on railcars built for our lease fleet, which is eliminated in consolidation, was $9.5 million for 2016 compared to $87.7 million for 2015, and is based on an estimated fair market value of revenues as if the railcars had been sold to a third party, less the cost to manufacture.
Operating margin from our manufacturing segment decreased to 10.8% in 2016 from 23.6% in 2015. These decreases for both earnings from operations and operating margin were primarily due to the impact of the loss contingency related to the Revised Directive recognized by the manufacturing segment of $12.3 million during 2016, as discussed above. Furthermore, during 2016, we had a higher mix of hopper railcar shipments, which generally sell at lower prices than tank railcars, in addition to more competitive pricing on both hopper and tank railcars, combined with higher costs associated with the lower production rates at our railcar manufacturing facilities.
Railcar leasing
2017 vs. 2016
Our railcar leasing segment revenues for 2017 increased by $2.9 million compared to 2016. The increases in revenues were driven by an increase in the number of railcars on lease with third parties, partially offset by a decline in weighted average lease rates on new railcars for lease and lease renewals. We had 13,138 railcars in our lease fleet at the end of 2017 compared to 11,268 railcars at the end of 2016.
In 2016, we began leasing railcars to certain of the IELP Entities under an operating lease arrangement, consistent with our leasing arrangements with non-affiliates. In 2017, revenues from railcars leased to certain of the IELP Entities were $1.0 million, or 0.2% of our total consolidated revenues, compared to $0.3 million, or less than 0.1% of our total consolidated revenues, in 2016.
In 2017, earnings from operations for our railcar leasing segment, which include an allocation of selling, general and administrative costs, decreased by $4.1 million compared to 2016. Operating margin from our railcar leasing segment was 55.5% for 2017 compared to 59.8% in 2016. These decreases were primarily due to increased maintenance costs and lower lease rates on renewals, each as discussed above. The decrease in earnings from operations was partially offset by an increase in the number of railcars in our lease fleet.
2016 vs. 2015

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Our railcar leasing segment revenues for 2016 increased by $15.5 million compared to 2015. The primary reason for the increase in revenue was an increase in the number of railcars on lease with third parties. We had 11,268 railcars in our lease fleet at the end of 2016 compared to 10,362 railcars at the end of 2015.
In 2016, we began leasing railcars to certain of the IELP Entities under an operating lease arrangement, consistent with our leasing arrangements with non-affiliates. Revenues from railcars leased to certain of the IELP Entities were $0.3 million, or less than 0.1% of our total consolidated revenues, for the year ended December 31, 2016.
In 2016, earnings from operations for our railcar leasing segment, which include an allocation of selling, general and administrative costs, increased by $8.7 million compared to 2015. This increase is primarily due to the growth in the number of railcars in our lease fleet. Operating margin from our railcar leasing segment was 59.8% for 2016 compared to 60.3% in 2015. This decrease was due to a slight decline in weighted average lease rates compared to 2015.
Railcar services
2017 vs. 2016
Our railcar services segment revenues for 2017 increased 4.9% compared to 2016. These increases were primarily due to increased demand and additional capacity from our mobile repair operations, an increase in repair work performed at our tank railcar manufacturing facility, and intercompany revenue primarily from our railcars inspected pursuant to the FRA's Revised Directive that is eliminated in consolidation, partially offset by decreased demand for tank railcar qualifications and tank railcar exterior paint and interior linings.
For 2017, our railcar services revenues included transactions with ARL totaling $10.1 million, or 2.1% of our total consolidated revenues, compared to $26.8 million, or 4.2% of our total consolidated revenues in 2016. Following the consummation of the ARL Sale, which was completed during the second quarter of 2017, the RMTA, among other things and subject to its terms, provided for the termination of our railcar services agreement, dated April 15, 2011 (as amended), between ARL and ARI, pursuant to which ARI provided ARL railcar repair, engineering, administrative and other services on an as needed basis. See Note 18 of our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the RMTA. We expect to continue to provide repair services to ARL as needed from time to time.
In 2017, earnings from operations for our railcar services segment, which include an allocation of selling, general and administrative costs, decreased 17.2% compared to 2016. Operating margin from railcar services decreased to 11.4% for 2017 from 14.5% in 2016. These decreases were due predominately to an unfavorable mix of work, primarily related to performing low-revenue and low-margin services related to the FRA's Revised Directive, partially offset by an increase in demand for our mobile repair services.
2016 vs. 2015
Our railcar services segment revenues for 2016 increased 5.9% compared to 2015. The increase was primarily due to an increase in demand and volume associated with additional capacity resulting from our expansion projects that ramped up in 2016.
For 2016, our railcar services revenues included transactions with ARL totaling $26.8 million, or 4.2% of our total consolidated revenues, compared to $24.9 million, or 2.8% of our total consolidated revenues in 2015.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
As of December 31, 2017, we had net working capital of $168.6 million, including $100.2 million of cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2017, we had $545.6 million of debt outstanding, net of unamortized debt issuance costs of $4.6 million, under an indenture entered into by our wholly-owned subsidiary, Longtrain Leasing III, LLC (LLIII) and we also had up to $200.0 million available to us under a revolving loan, as discussed below.
Outstanding and Available Debt
Subsidiary lease fleet financings
In January 2015, we refinanced the Longtrain Leasing I, LLC (LLI) and Longtrain Leasing II, LLC (LLII) lease fleet financing facilities to, among other things, increase our borrowings. LLIII issued $625.5 million in aggregate principal amount of notes, pursuant to an Indenture (the Indenture). The notes are fixed rate secured railcar equipment notes bearing interest at a rate of 2.98% per annum for the Class A-1 Notes and 4.06% per annum for the Class A-2 Notes (collectively with the Class A-1 Notes, the Notes). As of December 31, 2017, there were $174.9 million and $375.5 million of Class A-1 and Class A-2 notes

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outstanding, respectively. The Notes have a legal final maturity date of January 17, 2045 and an expected principal repayment date of January 15, 2025.
Pursuant to the terms of the Indenture, LLIII is required to maintain deposits in a liquidity reserve bank account equal to nine months of interest payments. As of December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, the liquidity reserve amount was $16.6 million and $16.7 million, respectively, and included within 'Restricted cash' on the consolidated balance sheets.
While the legal final maturity date of the Notes is January 17, 2045, cash flows from LLIII's assets will be applied, pursuant to the flow of funds provisions of the Indenture, so as to achieve monthly targeted principal balances. Also, under the flow of funds provisions of the Indenture, early amortization of the Notes may be required in certain circumstances. If the Notes are not repaid by the expected principal repayment date on January 15, 2025, additional interest will accrue at a rate of 5.0% per annum and be payable monthly according to the flow of funds. LLIII can prepay or redeem the Class A-1 Notes, in whole or in part, on any payment date, subject to the payment of a make-whole amount with respect to certain prepayments or redemptions made on or prior to the scheduled payment date occurring in January 2018. LLIII can prepay or redeem the Class A-2 Notes, in whole or in part, on any payment date occurring on or after January 16, 2018, subject to the payment of a make-whole amount with respect to certain prepayments or redemptions made on or prior to the scheduled payment date occurring in January 2022.
The Indenture also contains certain customary events of default, including among others, failure to pay amounts when due after applicable grace periods, failure to comply with certain covenants and agreements, and certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency. Certain events of default under the Indenture will make the outstanding principal balance and accrued interest on the Notes, together with all amounts then due and owing to the noteholders, immediately due and payable without further action. For other events of default, the Indenture Trustee, acting at the direction of a majority of the noteholders, may declare the principal of and accrued interest on all Notes then outstanding to be due and payable immediately.
The Notes are obligations of LLIII, are generally non-recourse to ARI, and are secured by a first lien on the subject assets of LLIII consisting of railcars, railcar leases, receivables and related assets, subject to limited exceptions. ARI has, however, entered into agreements containing certain representations, undertakings, and indemnities customary for asset sellers and parent companies in transactions of this type, and ARI is obligated to make any selections of transfers of railcars, railcar leases, receivables and related assets to be transferred to LLIII without any adverse selection, to cause ARL, as the manager, to maintain, lease, and re-lease LLIII's equipment no less favorably than similar portfolios serviced by ARL, and to repurchase or replace certain railcars under certain conditions set forth in the respective financing documents. See below and Note 18, Related Party Transactions, for further discussion regarding this agreement with ARL, our subcontractor agreement with ARL, and the impact of the ARL Sale.
ARI lease fleet financings
In December 2015, we completed a financing of our railcar lease fleet with availability of up to $200.0 million under a credit agreement (2015 Credit Agreement). The 2015 Credit Agreement contains an incremental borrowing provision under which ARI, as debtor and subject to the conditions set forth in the 2015 Credit Agreement, has the right but not the obligation to increase the amount of the facility in an aggregate amount of up to $100.0 million (the amounts extended under the 2015 Credit Agreement, inclusive of any amounts extended under the incremental facility, the Revolving Loans), to a maximum principal amount of $300.0 million. We may use the proceeds of the Revolving Loans to finance the manufacturing of railcars on an ongoing basis, to pay related transaction costs, fees and expenses in connection with the 2015 Credit Agreement, to finance ongoing working capital requirements and for other general corporate purposes. The initial Revolving Loan obtained at closing amounted to approximately $99.5 million, net of fees and expenses. In February 2016, we repaid amounts outstanding under the Revolving Loan in full and as of the date of this report we have borrowing availability of $200.0 million under this facility.
The Revolving Loans accrue interest at a rate per annum equal to Adjusted LIBOR (as defined in the 2015 Credit Agreement) for the applicable interest period, plus 1.45%, subject to an alternative rate as set forth in the 2015 Credit Agreement. The interest rate increases by 2.0% following certain defaults or maturity.
The Revolving Loans and the other obligations under the 2015 Credit Agreement are fully recourse to the Company and are secured by a first lien and security interest on certain specified railcars (together with specified replacement railcars), related leases, related receivables and related assets, subject to limited exceptions, a controlled bank account, and following an election by the Company (the Election), the applicable railcar management agreement with ARL. Due to the ARL Sale, the Company does not expect to make an Election under the 2015 Credit Agreement. See below and Note 18, Related Party Transactions, for further discussion regarding this agreement with ARL, our subcontractor agreement with ARL, and the impact of the ARL Sale.
Subject to the provisions of the 2015 Credit Agreement, the Revolving Loans may be borrowed and reborrowed until the maturity date. The Revolving Loans may be prepaid at the Company’s option at any time without premium or penalty (other

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than customary LIBOR breakage fees and customary reimbursement of increased costs). See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the prepayment and final scheduled maturity of the Revolving Loans.
The Revolving Loans are also subject to acceleration upon and following specified events of default. The 2015 Credit Agreement contains certain representations, warranties, and affirmative and negative covenants applicable to us and, following the Election, ARL, which are customarily applicable to senior secured facilities. Due to the ARL Sale, the Company does not expect to make an Election under the 2015 Credit Agreement. Key defaults and events of default include failure to repay principal, interest, fees and other amounts owed under the 2015 Credit Agreement; making misrepresentations; cross-defaults to certain other indebtedness of the Company; the rendering of certain judgments against the Company; impermissible transfers of equipment; occurrence of a Material Adverse Change (as defined in the 2015 Credit Agreement); and the Company’s bankruptcy or insolvency. Many defaults are subject to cure periods prior to such default giving rise to the right of the lenders and administrative agent to accelerate the Revolving Loans and to exercise remedies.
If a default occurs and is not cured within any applicable grace period or is not waived, the lenders and the administrative agent would be entitled to take various actions, including the acceleration of amounts due under the 2015 Credit Agreement. If the indebtedness under the 2015 Credit Agreement were accelerated, the Company may not have sufficient funds to pay such indebtedness. In that event, the lenders and the administrative agent would be entitled to enforce their security interests in the collateral securing such indebtedness.
Management Transition of our Railcar Leasing Business
As previously disclosed, on December 16, 2016, we entered into the RMTA with ARL to manage the transition from ARL to ARI, of the management of our railcar leasing business in anticipation of the ARL Sale. The RMTA, among other things, (i) permits ARI to assume the management of its leased railcars following the consummation of the ARL Sale; (ii) requires ARI to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain the consent of noteholders (the Noteholder Consent) for ARI to replace ARL as manager of the LLIII railcars under the Indenture, and certain related documents; and (iii) requires ARL to transfer to ARI certain books and records and electronic data with respect to ARI and LLIII's lease railcars and the Company’s and LLIII's leasing businesses and otherwise assist in the transfer of the management of the leasing businesses to ARI, provided that if the Noteholder Consent is not obtained, ARL, under the Buyer’s management, will remain the manager of the LLIII railcars under the Indenture. The Company has no obligation to pay any consent or similar fees in connection with obtaining the Noteholder Consent. In addition, pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Agreement, ARL provides ARI an irrevocable, fully paid, non-transferable (except as set forth therein), royalty-free license to certain software and databases owned and used by ARL to manage its railcars and the railcars owned by ARI and LLIII. See below and Note 18, Related Party Transactions, for further discussion regarding this agreement with ARL, our subcontractor agreement with ARL, and the impact of the ARL Sale. We also anticipate amending the 2015 Credit Agreement to permit us to fully separate the management of our railcars from ARL’s management.
Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our change in cash and cash equivalents: 
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in):
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
131,546

 
180,503

 
264,503

Investing activities
(153,984
)
 
(114,738
)
 
(240,638
)
Financing activities
(56,048
)
 
(185,206
)
 
186,399

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
159

 
(52
)
 
(309
)
(Decrease) Increase in cash and cash equivalents
$
(78,327
)
 
$
(119,493
)
 
$
209,955

Net Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities
Cash flows from operating activities are affected by several factors, including fluctuations in business volume, contract terms for billings and collections, the timing of collections on our accounts receivable, processing of payroll and associated taxes and payments to our suppliers.
2017 vs. 2016

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Our net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $131.5 million compared to $180.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was primarily due to decreased earnings, as described above, and changes in various operating assets and liabilities, including changes in taxes due to new tax laws enacted in December 2017 as discussed above and accrued expenses, as well as accounts receivable, inventories, and accounts payable, related to the timing of shipments and customer payments.
2016 vs. 2015
Our net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $180.5 million compared to $264.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease was primarily due to decreased earnings, as described above, and changes in various operating assets and liabilities, including income taxes receivable and accrued expenses, as well as accounts receivable, inventories, and accounts payable, related to the timing of shipments and customer payments. Additionally, in 2015 we collected income taxes receivable that were outstanding as of December 31, 2014.
Net Cash Used In Investing Activities
2017 vs. 2016
Our net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $154.0 million compared to $114.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily due to increased spending on leased railcars in 2017 compared to 2016, partially offset by the sale of short-term investments in 2017 that were purchased in 2016 and decreased capital spending as certain projects were deferred due to lower production levels. Railcars built for the lease fleet represented 43.7% of our railcar shipments for 2017 compared to 18.9% for 2016.
2016 vs. 2015
Our net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $114.7 million compared to $240.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease was primarily due to reduced spending on leased railcars and capital expenditures in 2016 compared to 2015, partially offset by the purchase of short-term investments in 2016. Railcars built for the lease fleet represented 18.9% of our railcar shipments for 2016 compared to 29.6% for 2015.
Capital expenditures
We continuously evaluate facility requirements based on our strategic plans, production requirements and market demand and may elect to change our level of capital investments in the future. These investments are all based on an analysis of the estimated rates of return and impact on our profitability. We continue to pursue opportunities to reduce our costs through continued vertical integration of component parts and other cost reduction projects. From time to time, we may expand our business by acquiring other businesses or pursuing other strategic growth opportunities including, without limitation, joint ventures.
Capital expenditures for the year ended December 31, 2017 were $170.8 million, including $163.8 million related to manufacturing railcars for lease to others, as well as costs that were for capitalized projects that we expect will maintain equipment, improve efficiencies, further enhance the quality of our products and services, and reduce costs. We cannot assure you that we will be able to complete any of our projects on a timely basis or within budget, if at all, or that our capital expenditures will align with industry demand for our products and services.
Net Cash Flow from Financing Activities
2017 vs. 2016
Our net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $56.0 million compared to $185.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The cash used in financing activities was higher in 2016 as that year included the $100.0 million repayment of our Revolving Loan and repurchases of $28.6 million of our common stock under our stock repurchase program (the Stock Repurchase Program), as described further below. We did not have any similar cash uses in 2017. Our quarterly dividend payments of $0.40 per share, totaling $30.5 million during 2017, were consistent with dividend payments in 2016.
2016 vs. 2015
Our net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $185.2 million compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $186.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The cash used in financing activities

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in 2016 was primarily a result of the $100.0 million repayment of our Revolving Loan, compared to the cash provided by financing activities in 2015 resulting from the $211.6 million and $99.5 million in net proceeds that we received from the January 2015 lease fleet refinancing and the December 2015 revolving credit facility, respectively, as discussed above, partially offset by the related debt issuance costs of $5.9 million. Additionally, we repurchased $28.6 million of shares of our common stock under the Stock Repurchase Program during 2016, compared to $57.4 million in 2015 and we paid quarterly dividends of $0.40 per share, totaling $31.0 million during 2016, compared to a total of $33.2 million in 2015. This change resulted from a reduction in the number of shares outstanding due to repurchases under our stock repurchase program. See discussion of the Stock Repurchase Program and dividends in Item 5.
Future Liquidity
As of December 31, 2017, our current liquidity consisted of our existing cash and cash equivalents balance, anticipated cash flows from operations, and borrowing availability of $200.0 million under the 2015 Credit Agreement. We expect to require additional financing over and above our current liquidity position to continue to grow our railcar leasing business in connection with demand.
Additionally, we expect our future cash flows from operations could be impacted by the state of the credit markets and the overall economy, the number of railcar orders we receive, our shipments and our production rates, as well as costs and expenses related to our compliance with governmental and industry regulations and requirements, including but not limited to the Revised Directive. Our future liquidity may also be impacted by the number of railcar orders we receive for lease versus direct sale. However, we believe we have a strong balance sheet with good borrowing capacity based on, among other things, our ability to use any unencumbered railcars in our lease fleet as collateral in any future financing transaction.
Our operating performance may also be affected by other matters discussed under “Risk Factors,” and trends and uncertainties discussed in this discussion and analysis, as well as elsewhere in this annual report. These risks, trends and uncertainties may also materially adversely affect our long-term liquidity.
Our current capital expenditure plans for 2018 include projects that we expect will maintain equipment, improve efficiencies, further enhance the quality of our products and services, and reduce costs. We also plan to increase our railcar lease fleet in 2018 to meet customer demand for leased railcars that have been ordered. Capital expenditures for 2018 are currently projected to be approximately $90 to $110 million, which includes expected additions to our lease fleet. However, this estimate may vary throughout the course of 2018. We cannot assure that we will be able to complete any of our projects on a timely basis or within budget, if at all.
Our long-term liquidity is contingent upon future operating performance, our and our wholly-owned leasing subsidiary's ability to continue to meet our respective financial covenants under our respective financing facilities, our ability to satisfy our covenants under any other indebtedness we may enter into, and the ability to repay or refinance any such indebtedness as it becomes due. We may also require additional capital in the future to fund capital expenditures, acquisitions or other investments, including additions to our lease fleet, and to comply with governmental and industry regulations and requirements. These capital requirements could be substantial.
Other potential projects, including possible strategic transactions that could complement and expand our business units, will be evaluated to determine if the project or opportunity is right for us. We anticipate that any future expansion of our business will be financed through existing resources, cash flow from operations, term debt associated directly with that project or other new financing. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to meet existing financial covenants or obtain term debt or other new financing on favorable terms, if at all. Our liquidity will be impacted to the extent additional stock repurchases are made under our Stock Repurchase Program.
Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2017, and the effect that these obligations and commitments are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flow in future periods.
 

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Payments due by Period
Contractual Obligations
Total
 
1 year or
less
 
1-3 years
 
3-5 years
 
After 5
years
 
(in thousands)
Operating Lease Obligations 1
$
6,598

 
$
1,432

 
$
2,652

 
$
1,385

 
$
1,129

Notes
550,425

 
25,590

 
51,861

 
52,210

 
420,764

Interest Payments on Notes 2
430,897

 
20,109

 
37,928

 
34,799

 
338,061

Pension Funding 3
5,177

 
601

 
1,773

 
1,599

 
1,204

Capital Project Related 4
945

 
945

 

 

 

Total
$
994,042

 
$
48,677

 
$
94,214

 
$
89,993

 
$
761,158

 
(1)
The operating lease commitment includes the future minimum rental payments required under non-cancelable operating leases for property and equipment leased by us.
(2)
The weighted average interest rate on the Notes is 3.7% and is payable monthly.
(3)
Our pension funding commitments include minimum funding contributions required by law for our two funded pension plans as well as expected benefit payments for our one unfunded pension plan.
(4)
Represents the costs for materials and for services provided by third parties related to various capital projects.
We have excluded from the contractual obligations table above, our gross amount of unrecognized tax benefits of $1.8 million. While it is uncertain as to the amount, if any, of these unrecognized tax benefits that will be settled by means of a cash payment, a reversal, or a change in facts, we do not anticipate a material change in the amount of unrecognized tax benefits in the next year.
We have an agreement with Axis to purchase new railcar axles. We do not have any minimum volume purchase requirements under this agreement.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Other than operating leases, we have no other off-balance sheet arrangements.
Contingencies
See Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements located in Part II, Item 8 of this report, which is incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 7, for a description of the litigation, legal and administrative proceedings, including our loss contingency of $8.8 million related to the Revised Directive as of December 31, 2017.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND POLICIES
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles). The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of sales and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates and assumptions are periodically evaluated and may be adjusted in future periods. A summary of our significant accounting policies are described in Note 3 of our consolidated financial statements in this annual report. Some of these policies involve a high degree of judgment in their application. The critical accounting policies, in management's judgment, are those described below. If different assumptions or conditions prevail, or if our estimates and assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results could be materially different from those reported.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, on a first-in, first-out basis, and include the cost of materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead. We allocate fixed production overheads to the costs of conversion based on the normal capacity of our production facilities. If any of our production facilities are not operating at normal capacity, unallocated production overheads are recognized as a current period charge. We evaluate our ability to realize the value of our inventory based on a combination of factors including historical usage rates, forecasted sales or usage, product end of life dates, estimated current and future market values and new product introductions. Assumptions used in determining our estimates of future product demand may prove to be incorrect; in which case, the provision required for excess and obsolete inventory would have to be adjusted in the future. When recorded, our reserves are intended to reduce the carrying value of our inventory to its net realizable value.

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Impairment of Long-lived Assets
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the long-lived assets may not be recoverable. During the year ended December 31, 2017, no triggering events occurred. The criteria for determining impairment of such long-lived assets to be held and used is determined by comparing the carrying value of these long-lived assets to be held and used to management's best estimate of future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the long-lived assets. If the long-lived assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the long-lived assets exceeds the fair value of the long-lived assets. The estimated fair value of the long-lived assets is measured by estimating the present value of the future discounted cash flows to be generated.
The North American railcar market has been, and we expect it to continue to be highly cyclical, generally fluctuating in correlation with the U.S. economy. We continually monitor our long-lived assets for impairment in response to events or changes in circumstances.
Goodwill
As of December 31, 2017, we had $7.2 million of goodwill recorded in conjunction with a past business acquisition, all allocated to a reporting unit that is part of our manufacturing segment. We evaluate goodwill for impairment at least annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.
We perform the annual goodwill impairment test as of November 1 each year. For purposes of goodwill impairment testing, our manufacturing segment is the only segment with allocated goodwill. The review for impairment is either a qualitative assessment or a two-step process. If we choose to perform a qualitative assessment and determine that the fair value of the reporting unit more likely than not exceeds the carrying value, no further evaluation is necessary. In evaluating whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is greater than its carrying amount, we consider various qualitative and quantitative factors, including macroeconomic conditions, railcar industry trends and the fact that the reporting unit has historical positive operating cash flows that we anticipate will continue.
For the two-step process, the first step is to compare the estimated fair value of the operating unit with the recorded net book value (including the goodwill). If the estimated fair value of the operating unit is higher than the recorded net book value, no impairment is deemed to exist and no further testing is required. If, however, the estimated fair value of the operating unit is below the recorded net book value, then a second step must be performed to determine if impairment of the goodwill is required. In this second step, the implied fair value of goodwill is calculated as the excess of the fair value of the operating unit over the fair value assigned to the operating unit's assets and liabilities. If the implied fair value of goodwill is less than the book value of the goodwill, the difference is recognized as an impairment loss.
The reporting unit fair value is based upon consideration of various valuation methodologies, including guideline transaction multiples, multiples of current earnings, and projected future cash flows discounted at rates commensurate with the risk involved (Discounted Cash Flow or DCF). Assumptions used in a DCF require the exercise of significant judgment, including judgment about appropriate discount rates and terminal values, growth rates, and the amount and timing of expected future cash flows.
We performed a qualitative assessment as of November 1, 2017 and determined that fair value of the reporting unit more likely than not exceeds the carrying value and therefore no further testing was deemed necessary and no impairment of goodwill was recorded. See Notes 3 and 8 of the consolidated financial statements for further details.
Income Taxes
For financial reporting purposes, income tax expense or benefit is estimated based on planned tax return filings. The amounts anticipated to be reported in those filings may change between the time the financial statements are prepared and the time the tax returns are filed. Further, because tax filings are subject to review by taxing authorities, there is also the risk that a position on a tax return may be challenged by a taxing authority. If the taxing authority is successful in asserting a position different from that taken by us, differences in tax expense or between current and deferred tax items may arise in future periods. Any such differences, which could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements, would be reflected in the consolidated financial statements when management considers them probable of occurring and the amount reasonably estimable.
We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. We regularly evaluate recoverability of our deferred tax assets and establish a valuation allowance, if necessary, based on historical taxable income, projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and the implementation of tax-planning strategies. We consider whether it is more

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likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. It is possible that some or all of our deferred tax assets could ultimately expire unused.
U.S. GAAP provides that the tax effects from an uncertain tax position can be recognized in the financial statements only if the position is “more-likely-than-not” to be sustained if the position were to be challenged by a taxing authority. The assessment of the tax position is based solely on the technical merits of the position, without regard to the likelihood that the tax position may be challenged. If an uncertain tax position meets the “more-likely-than-not” threshold, the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely to be recognized upon ultimate settlement with the taxing authority is recorded.
On December 22, 2017, the 2017 Tax Act was signed into law making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code). Changes include, but are not limited to: a federal corporate tax rate decrease from 35% to 21%, effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017; the transition of U.S international taxation from a worldwide tax system to a territorial system; and a one-time transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of cumulative foreign earnings as of December 31, 2017. We have estimated the impact of the 2017 Tax Act in our income tax provision for the year ended December 31, 2017 in accordance with our understanding of the 2017 Tax Act and guidance available as of the date of this filing and as a result have recorded adjustments to our various tax balances, current, long-term and deferred tax assets and liabilities, all during the fourth quarter of 2017, the period in which the legislation was enacted. The provisional amount related to the remeasurement of certain deferred tax assets and liabilities, based on the rates at which they are expected to reverse in the future, was $107.9 million, representing an income tax benefit recorded during the fourth quarter of 2017. The provisional amount related to the one-time transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of foreign earnings was $0.6 million net of applicable foreign tax credits, based on cumulative foreign earnings and taxes of $10.2 million.
On December 22, 2017, Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (SAB 118) was issued to address the application of U.S. GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Act. In accordance with SAB 118, we have determined that the $107.9 million of the deferred tax benefit recorded in connection with the remeasurement of certain deferred tax assets and liabilities and the $0.6 million of current tax expense recorded in connection with the transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of foreign earnings were each a provisional amount and a reasonable estimate as of the date of this filing. The accounting for these provisional amounts may be adjusted as we gain a better understanding of the new tax laws due to additional guidance and analysis on these estimates, including but not limited to, rules related to the deductibility of acquired assets, state tax treatments, and finalizing our foreign affiliate analysis. Any subsequent adjustment to these amounts will be recorded to current tax expense in the quarter of 2018 when the analysis is complete and additional guidance and IRS interpretations are issued.
See Note 12 of the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Pension Benefits
Pension costs and liabilities are dependent on assumptions used in calculating such amounts. The primary assumptions include factors such as discount rates, expected return on plan assets, and mortality and retirement rates, as discussed below:
Discount rates
The discount rate assumption used to determine the December 31, 2017 benefit obligations was 3.42%. The discount rate assumption used to determine the 2017 net periodic cost was 3.89%. We review these rates annually and adjust them to reflect current yields on long-term, high-quality corporate bonds. We deemed these rates appropriate based on the Citigroup Pension Discount curve analysis along with expected payments to retirees.
Expected return on plan assets
Our expected return on plan assets for our funded pension plans of 7.25% for 2017 is derived from detailed periodic studies, which include a review of asset allocation strategies, anticipated future long-term performance of individual asset classes, risks (standard deviations) and correlations of returns among the asset classes that comprise the plans' asset mix. While the studies give appropriate consideration to recent plan performance and historical returns, the assumptions are primarily long-term, prospective rates of return.
Mortality and retirement rates
Mortality and retirement rates are based on actual and anticipated plan experience.
In accordance with U.S. GAAP, actual results that differ from the assumptions are accumulated and amortized over future periods and, therefore, generally affect recognized expense and the recorded obligation in future periods. While management

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believes that the assumptions used are appropriate, differences in actual experience or changes in assumptions may affect our pension obligations and future expense.
The following information illustrates the sensitivity to a change in certain assumptions for our pension plans:
 
Change in Assumption
Effect on 2018 Pre-Tax
Pension Expense
 
Effect on December 31,
2017 Projected Benefit Obligation
 
(in thousands)
1% decrease in discount rate
$
194

 
$
3,149

1% increase in discount rate
$
(203
)
 
$
(2,823
)
1% decrease in expected return on assets
$
171

 
N/A

1% increase in expected return on assets
$
(171
)
 
N/A

This sensitivity analysis reflects the effects of changing one assumption. Various economic factors and conditions often affect multiple assumptions simultaneously and the effects of changes in key assumptions are not necessarily linear.
Contingencies and Litigation
The industries in which we operate are subject to extensive regulation by various governmental, regulatory and industry authorities and by federal, state, local and foreign authorities. Civil and criminal fines and penalties and other sanctions may be imposed for non-compliance with these regulations and may require significant expenditures to achieve compliance and may be modified or revised to impose new obligations. Future regulatory developments, such as our failure to achieve, maintain or renew required certifications, new regulations or changes to existing regulations, modified interpretations of existing regulations, enhanced regulatory investigation, stricter regulatory enforcement, or any determination that our processes or products are not in compliance with applicable regulations, could result in increased compliance and other costs, governmental or administrative fines, penalties, or proceedings, private litigation, product recalls, or plant shut-downs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, reputation, financial condition and results of operations. Based on information currently available with respect to such regulations, we estimate future costs for compliance requirements and establish a loss contingency for them when it is probable that we have incurred a liability and the related costs can be reasonably estimated. If further developments in or resolution of a matter of this nature result in facts and circumstances that are significantly different than the assumptions used to develop the loss contingency, it could be materially understated or overstated. Adjustments to these liabilities are made when additional information becomes available that affects the estimated costs to comply with any regulation or when expenditures for which reserves are established are made. Due to the uncertain nature of these regulatory matters, there can be no assurance that we will not become involved in future litigation or other proceedings or, if we were found to be responsible or liable in any litigation or proceeding, that such costs would not be material to us.
The Company is involved in claims and lawsuits incidental to our business. Based on information currently available with respect to such claims, lawsuits, including information on claims and lawsuits as to which the Company is aware but for which the Company has not been served with legal process, it is management's opinion that such claims, suits and complaints are without merit or the ultimate outcome of all such claims, suits, and complaints would not have a significant effect on the future liquidity, results of operations or financial position of ARI if disposed of unfavorably. However, resolution of certain claims or suits by settlement or otherwise, could impact the operating results of the reporting period in which such resolution occurs. See Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements for further explanation.
Environmental
Certain real property we acquired from ACF in 1994 has been involved in investigation and remediation activities to address contamination. Substantially all of the issues identified with respect to these properties relate to the use of these properties prior to their transfer to us by ACF and for which ACF has retained liability for environmental contamination that may have existed at the time of transfer to us. ACF has also agreed to indemnify us for any cost that might be incurred with those existing issues. As of the date of this report, we do not believe that we will incur material costs in connection with any activities relating to these properties, but we cannot assure that this will be the case. If ACF fails to honor its obligations to us, we could be responsible for the cost of any additional investigation or remediation activities relating to these properties that may be required. We cannot assure that we will not become involved in future litigation or other proceedings, or that we will be able to recover under our indemnity provisions if we were found to be responsible or liable in any litigation or proceeding, or that such costs would not be material to us.

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Share-based Compensation
We use the Black-Scholes-Merton (Black-Scholes) model to estimate the fair value of our share-based awards issued under the Amended and Restated 2005 Equity Incentive Plan. The Black-Scholes model requires estimates of the expected term of the share-based award, future volatility, dividend yield, and the risk-free interest rate. We estimate the expected term of stock appreciation rights (SARs) based on SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin Official Text Topic 14D2, which addressed the expected term aspect of the Black-Scholes model. It stated that companies that did not have adequate exercise history on equity instruments were allowed to use the “simplified method” prescribed by the SEC, which called for an average of the vesting period and the expiration period of grants with “plain vanilla” characteristics. These characteristics included service based vesting instruments granted at the money along with certain other requirements.
Our SARs have fair value estimates that are generated from the Black-Scholes calculation. This calculation requires inputs as mentioned above that may require some judgment or estimation. We use our best judgment at the time of valuation to estimate fair value on the SARs. All SARs granted are classified as liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets, given that they settle in cash, and thus, must be revalued every period. As such, the fair value estimates on the SARs we granted to our employees are subject to volatility inherent in the stock price since it is based on current market values at the end of every period. Share-based compensation on all equity awards is expensed using a graded vesting method over the vesting period of the instrument. Additional expense or income continues to be generated beyond the vesting period as a result of changes in the valuation of the SARs.
Item 7A: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to price risks associated with the purchase of raw materials, especially steel and heavy castings. The cost of steel, heavy castings and all other materials used in the production of our railcars represents more than half of our direct manufacturing costs per railcar. Given the significant volatility in the price of raw materials, this exposure can affect our costs of production.
We believe that the risk to our margins and profitability has been somewhat reduced by the variable pricing provisions we generally include in our railcar sales and leasing contracts. These provisions adjust the purchase prices or lease rates of our railcars to reflect fluctuations in the cost of certain raw materials and components on a dollar for dollar basis and, as a result, we are generally able to pass on to our customers most increases in raw material and component costs with respect to the railcars we plan to produce and deliver to them. From time to time, based on market conditions, we also enter into orders where such changes in material costs are not passed on to customers.
We believe that we currently have good supplier relationships and do not currently anticipate that material constraints will limit our production capacity. Such constraints may exist if railcar production were to increase beyond current levels, or regulatory, or other economic changes were to occur that affect the availability of our raw materials.
In December 2015, the Company completed a financing of its railcar lease fleet with availability of up to $200.0 million under a credit agreement (2015 Credit Agreement). As of December 31, 2017, the Company had borrowing availability of $200.0 million under this facility. In the event the Company were to draw on this Revolving Loan, our earnings could be affected by changes in interest rates as this facility accrues interest at a rate per annum equal to Adjusted LIBOR (as defined in the 2015 Credit Agreement) for the applicable interest period, plus 1.45%.

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Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
American Railcar Industries, Inc.
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
 
 
Page
Audited Consolidated Financial Statements of American Railcar Industries, Inc.
 

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM


Board of Directors and Stockholders
American Railcar Industries, Inc.
Opinion on internal control over financial reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of American Railcar Industries, Inc. (a North Dakota corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by COSO.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2017, and our report dated February 23, 2018 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.

Basis for opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and limitations of internal control over financial reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
St. Louis, Missouri
February 23, 2018


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM


Board of Directors and Stockholders
American Railcar Industries, Inc.
Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of American Railcar Industries Inc. (a North Dakota corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated February 23, 2018 expressed an unqualified opinion on the internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2004.

St. Louis, Missouri
February 23, 2018


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AMERICAN RAILCAR INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
As of December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
100,244

 
$
178,571

Restricted cash
16,640

 
16,714

Short-term investments—available for sale securities

 
8,958

Accounts receivable, net
43,804

 
39,727

Accounts receivable, due from related parties
778

 
4,790

Income taxes receivable
19,115

 
2,010

Inventories, net
54,147

 
75,028

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
6,464

 
6,613

Total current assets
241,192

 
332,411

Property, plant and equipment, net
162,535

 
177,051

Railcars on leases, net
1,036,414

 
908,010

Income tax receivable
14

 
233

Goodwill
7,169

 
7,169

Investment in and loans to joint ventures
22,571

 
26,332

Other assets
3,531

 
5,044

Total assets
$
1,473,426

 
$
1,456,250

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
21,275

 
$
29,314

Accounts payable, due to related parties
41

 
3,252

Accrued expenses and taxes, including loss contingency of $6,548 and $10,127 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively
12,787

 
15,411

Accrued income taxes payable

 
7,660

Accrued compensation
12,874

 
11,628

Short-term debt, including current portion of long-term debt
25,590

 
25,588

Total current liabilities
72,567

 
92,853

Long-term debt, net of unamortized debt issuance costs of $4,647 and $4,863 as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively
520,024

 
545,392

Deferred tax liability, net
194,084

 
252,943

Pension and post-retirement liabilities
8,099

 
8,648

Other liabilities, including loss contingency of $2,283 and $2,161 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively
15,118

 
6,144

Total liabilities
809,892

 
905,980

Stockholders' equity:
 
 
 
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized, 19,083,878 shares outstanding at both December 31, 2017 and 2016.
213

 
213

Additional paid-in capital
239,609

 
239,609

Retained earnings
514,453

 
402,810

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(4,710
)
 
(6,331
)
Treasury stock
(86,031
)
 
(86,031
)
Total stockholders’ equity
663,534

 
550,270

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
1,473,426

 
$
1,456,250


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See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

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AMERICAN RAILCAR INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing (including revenues from affiliates of $339, $837 and $269,563 in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively)
$
264,557

 
$
429,774

 
$
700,061

Railcar leasing (including revenues from affiliates of $1,022, $272 and zero in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively)
135,130

 
132,245

 
116,714

Railcar services (including revenues from affiliates of $11,980, $26,781, and $24,880 in 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively)
77,156

 
77,114

 
72,561

Total revenues
476,843

 
639,133

 
889,336

Cost of revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Manufacturing
(247,974
)
 
(360,755
)
 
(539,136
)
Other operating loss (refer to Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies)
(417
)
 
(12,288
)
 

Railcar leasing
(46,260
)
 
(41,732
)
 
(36,161
)
Railcar services
(64,703
)
 
(62,178
)
 
(56,492
)
Total cost of revenues
(359,354
)
 
(476,953
)
 
(631,789
)
Gross profit
117,489

 
162,180

 
257,547

Selling, general and administrative
(36,892
)
 
(32,343
)
 
(30,866
)
Net gains on disposition of leased railcars
115

 
272

 
25

Earnings from operations
80,712

 
130,109

 
226,706

Interest income (including income from related parties of $1,174, $1,663, and $2,105 in 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively)
1,621

 
1,785

 
2,164

Interest expense
(21,854
)
 
(22,803
)
 
(21,801
)
Loss on debt extinguishment

 

 
(2,126
)
Other income (loss)
3,510

 
185

 
(11
)
Earnings from joint ventures
2,228

 
4,924

 
5,812

Earnings before income taxes
66,217

 
114,200

 
210,744

Income tax benefit (expense)
75,960

 
(41,537
)
 
(77,291
)
Net earnings
$
142,177

 
$
72,663

 
$
133,453

Net earnings per common share—basic and diluted
$
7.45

 
$
3.74

 
$
6.39

Weighted average common shares outstanding—basic and diluted
19,084

 
19,439

 
20,883

Cash dividends declared per common share
$
1.60

 
$
1.60

 
$
1.60

See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.


58

Table of Contents

AMERICAN RAILCAR INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(In thousands)
 
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Net earnings
$
142,177

 
$
72,663

 
$
133,453

Currency translation
1,177

 
215

 
(1,955
)
Postretirement plans (1)
859

 
294

 
49

Short-term investments (2)
(415
)
 
415

 

Comprehensive income
$
143,798

 
$
73,587

 
$
131,547


(1)
Net of tax effect of $0.4 mil